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  • In the 1600s, there were so many right whales in Cape Cod Bay

    翻訳: Masako Kigami 校正: Claire Ghyselen

  • off the east coast of the U.S.

    1600年代 アメリカ東海岸の沖にある ケープコッド湾には

  • that apparently you could walk across their backs


  • from one end of the bay to the other.


  • Today, they number in the hundreds, and they're endangered.


  • Like them, many species of whales saw their numbers drastically reduced

    今日では数百頭まで減少し 絶滅が危ぶまれています

  • by 200 years of whaling,

    タイセイヨウセミクジラのように 200年に渡る捕鯨で

  • where they were hunted and killed for their whale meat, oil and whale bone.


  • We only have whales in our waters today

    鯨肉、鯨油、鯨骨のために 狩猟されたのです

  • because of the Save the Whales movement of the '70s.


  • It was instrumental in stopping commercial whaling,


  • and was built on the idea that if we couldn't save whales,


  • what could we save?

    「鯨を守れなかったら 何を守れるのか?」という

  • It was ultimately a test of our political ability


  • to halt environmental destruction.


  • So in the early '80s, there was a ban on commercial whaling


  • that came into force as a result of this campaign.

    80年代初頭 反捕鯨運動により

  • Whales in our waters are still low in numbers, however,


  • because they do face a range of other human-induced threats.

    しかし 海の鯨の数は 依然として少ないままです

  • Unfortunately, many people still think that whale conservationists like myself

    他の人為的脅威にも 直面しているからです

  • do what we do only because these creatures are charismatic and beautiful.

    残念なことに 私のような 鯨の保護活動家は多くの人から

  • This is actually a disservice,

    鯨のカリスマ的な美しさゆえに 活動していると思われがちです

  • because whales are ecosystem engineers.


  • They help maintain the stability and health of the oceans,


  • and even provide services to human society.


  • So let's talk about why saving whales is critical

    人間社会に恩恵を もたらしているのです

  • to the resiliency of the oceans.

    それでは 海の回復力にとって 鯨の保護がなぜ重要なのかを

  • It boils down to two main things:


  • whale poop and rotting carcasses.


  • As whales dive to the depths to feed and come up to the surface to breathe,


  • they actually release these enormous fecal plumes.

    鯨は餌を求めて海中深く潜り 呼吸のために海面に上がってくる時

  • This whale pump, as it's called,


  • actually brings essential limiting nutrients from the depths

    いわゆる この鯨のポンプで実際

  • to the surface waters where they stimulate the growth of phytoplankton,

    限りある必須栄養素を 深海からプランクトンが成長する

  • which forms the base of all marine food chains.


  • So really, having more whales in the oceans pooping

    海洋生物の食物連鎖の基盤 を作るのです

  • is really beneficial to the entire ecosystem.

    だから 海に暮らす より多くの鯨が糞をすれば

  • Whales are also known to undertake some of the longest migrations of all mammals.


  • Gray whales off America migrate 16,000 kilometers

    鯨はすべての哺乳類の中でも 一番長い距離を回遊することでも知られています

  • between productive feeding areas and less productive calving, or birthing, areas

    アメリカ沖のコククジラは 豊かな餌場と餌の少ない出産、育児場所の間―

  • and back every year.

    1万6千キロを回遊し 毎年戻ってきます

  • As they do so, they transport fertilizer in the form of their feces

    1万6千キロを回遊し 毎年戻ってきます

  • from places that have it to places that need it.

    鯨が回遊するたびに 排泄物という肥料を

  • So clearly, whales are really important in nutrient cycling,

    たくさんある海から 必要とする海に 運ぶわけです

  • both horizontally and vertically, through the oceans.

    ですから 明らかに 海での水平方向と深さ方向の―

  • But what's really cool is that they're also really important after they're dead.

    栄養循環において クジラはとても重要なのです

  • Whale carcasses are some of the largest form of detritus

    しかし とてもカッコいいのは 死んでからも重要なことです

  • to fall from the ocean's surface, and they're called whale fall.


  • As these carcasses sink,

    海面から沈むと 鯨骨生物群集と呼ばれます

  • they provide a feast to some 400-odd species,


  • including the eel-shaped, slime-producing hagfish.

    ウナギに似た 体から粘液を出す ヌタウナギなど

  • So over the 200 years of whaling,

    400種に上る奇妙な生物の ご馳走になるのです

  • when we were busy killing and removing these carcasses from the oceans,


  • we likely altered the rate and geographic distribution of these whale falls

    鯨を殺し 海から死骸を奪い

  • that would descend into deep oceans,


  • and as a result, probably led to a number of extinctions


  • of species that were most specialized

    その結果 餌として鯨の死骸に特化し

  • and dependent on these carcasses for their survival.


  • Whale carcasses are also known to transport about 190,000 tons of carbon,


  • which is the equivalent of that produced

    鯨の死骸は およそ 19万トンの二酸化炭素を 大気中から深海へ

  • by 80,000 cars per year


  • from the atmosphere to the deep oceans,

    この量は 8 万台の車が1年間に排出する

  • and the deep oceans are what we call "carbon sinks,"


  • because they trap and hold excess carbon from the atmosphere,

    そのため 深海は 「二酸化炭素吸収源」であり

  • and therefore help to delay global warming.


  • Sometimes these carcasses also wash up on beaches


  • and provide a meal to a number of predatory species on land.

    時折 鯨の死骸が浜辺に打ち上げられると

  • The 200 years of whaling was clearly detrimental


  • and caused a reduction in the populations of whales


  • between 60 to 90 percent.


  • Clearly, the Save the Whales movement


  • was instrumental in preventing commercial whaling from going on,


  • but we need to revise this.


  • We need to address the more modern, pressing problems that these whales face


  • in our waters today.

    今日 鯨が海で直面している 現代の差し迫った問題について

  • Amongst other things, we need to stop them


  • from getting plowed down by container ships when they're in their feeding areas,


  • and stop them from getting entangled in fishing nets


  • as they float around in the ocean.


  • We also need to learn to contextualize our conservation messages,

    漁網が絡まないようにする 必要があります

  • so people really understand the true ecosystem value of these creatures.

    私たちの保護のメッセージをいかに状況に 合わせるか考える必要があります

  • So, let's save the whales again,

    そうすれば 鯨がもたらす 生態系の真の価値を理解してもらえるのです

  • but this time, let's not just do it for their sake.

    さあ 再び鯨を保護しましょう

  • Let's also do it for ours.

    ただ今回は ただ鯨のためだけではありません

  • Thank you.


  • (Applause)


In the 1600s, there were so many right whales in Cape Cod Bay

翻訳: Masako Kigami 校正: Claire Ghyselen


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B1 中級 日本語 TED 捕鯨 死骸 深海 海面 クジラ

TED】アーシャ・ドゥ・ヴォス。クジラのフンを気にする理由(アーシャ・ド・ヴォス:クジラのフンを気にする理由 (【TED】Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo (Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo))

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    CUChou に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日