中級 2356 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
You know how sometimes you go to bake a cake
but your bananas have all gone rotten,
your utensils have rusted,
you trip and pour all of your baking soda into the vinegar jug,
and then your oven explodes?
My friend, you and your chemical reactions have fallen victim to enthalpy and entropy
and, boy, are they forces to be reckoned with.
Now, your reactants are all products.
So, what are these "E" words, and what's their big idea?
Let's start with enthalpy,
an increase or decrease of energy during a chemical reaction.
Every molecule has a certain amount of chemical potential energy
stored within the bonds between its atoms.
Chemicals with more energy are less stable,
and thus, more likely to react.
Let's visualize the energy flow in a reaction,
the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen, by playing a round of crazy golf.
Our goal is to get a ball, the reactant, up a small rise
and down the other much steeper slope.
Where the hill goes up, we need to add energy to the ball,
and where it goes down, the ball releases energy into its surroundings.
The hole represents the product, or result of the reaction.
When the reaction period ends, the ball is inside the hole,
and we have our product: water.
This, like when our oven exploded, is an exothermic reaction,
meaning that the chemical's final energy is less than its starting energy,
and the difference has been added to the surrounding environment
as light and heat.
We can also play out the opposite type of reaction,
an endothermic reaction,
where the final energy is greater than the starting energy.
That's what we were trying to achieve by baking our cake.
The added heat from the oven would change the chemical structure
of the proteins in the eggs and various compounds in the butter.
So that's enthalpy.
As you might suspect,
exothermic reactions are more likely to happen than endothermic ones
because they require less energy to occur.
But there's another independent factor that can make reactions happen:
entropy.
Entropy measures a chemical's randomness.
Here's an enormous pyramid of golf balls.
Its ordered structure means it has low entropy.
However, when it collapses, we have chaos everywhere,
balls bouncing high and wide.
So much so that some even go over the hill.
This shift to instability, or higher entropy,
can allow reactions to happen.
As with the golf balls, in actual chemicals
this transition from structure to disorder gets some reactants past the hump
and lets them start a reaction.
You can see both enthalpy and entropy at play
when you go to light a campfire to cook dinner.
Your match adds enough energy
to activate the exothermic reaction of combustion,
converting the high-energy combustible material in the wood
to lower energy carbon dioxide and water.
Entropy also increases and helps the reaction along
because the neat, organized log of wood
is now converted into randomly moving water vapor and carbon dioxide.
The energy shed by this exothermic reaction
powers the endothermic reaction of cooking your dinner.
Bon appétit!
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

【TED-Ed】What triggers a chemical reaction? - Kareem Jarrah

2356 タグ追加 保存
稲葉白兎 2015 年 1 月 24 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔