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  • Alibaba Group is a privately owned Hangzhou-based group of Internet-based e-commerce businesses

  • including business-to-business online web portals, online retail and payment services,

  • a shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. In 2012, two of

  • Alibaba’s portals together handled 1.1 trillion yuan in sales, more than competitors eBay

  • and Amazon.com combined. The company primarily operates in the People’s Republic of China,

  • and in March 2013 was estimated by The Economist magazine to have a valuation between $55 billion

  • to more than $120 billion. The group began in 1999 when Jack Ma founded

  • the web site Alibaba.com, a business-to-business portal to connect Chinese manufacturers with

  • overseas buyers. Alibaba's consumer-to-consumer portal Taobao, similar to eBay, features nearly

  • a billion products and is one of the 20 most-visited websites globally. Alibaba Group's sites account

  • for over 60% of the parcels delivered in China. Alipay, an online payment escrow service,

  • accounts for roughly half of all online payment transactions within China. The vast majority

  • of these payments occur using Alibaba services. The company is seeking an initial public offering

  • in the United States after a deal could not be reached with Hong Kong regulators.

  • Companies and affiliated entities Alibaba.com

  • Alibaba.com Limited, the primary company of Alibaba Group, is the world’s largest online

  • business-to-business trading platform for small businesses.

  • Founded in Hangzhou in eastern China, Alibaba.com has three main services. The company’s English

  • language portal Alibaba.com handles sales between importers and exporters from more

  • than 240 countries and regions. The Chinese portal 1688.com was developed for domestic

  • business-to-business trade in China. In addition, Alibaba.com offers a transaction-based retail

  • website, AliExpress.com, which allows smaller buyers to buy small quantities of goods at

  • wholesale prices. In 2013, 1688.com launched a direct channel

  • that is responsible for $30 million in daily transaction value.

  • Taobao

  • Taobao Marketplace, or Taobao, is China's largest consumer-to-consumer online shopping

  • platform. Founded in 2003, it offers a variety of products for retail sale. In October 2013

  • it was the third most visited web site in China, according to Alexa.com. Taobao's growth

  • was attributed to offering free registration and commission-free transactions using a free

  • third-party payment platform. Advertising makes up 85 percent of the company's

  • total revenue, allowing it to break even in 2009. Taobao's 2010 profit was estimated to

  • be 1.5 billion yuan, only about 0.4 percent of their total sales figure of 400 billion

  • yuan that year, way below the industry average of 2 percent, according to iResearch estimates.

  • According to Zhang Yu, the director of Taobao, the number of stores on Taobao with annual

  • sales under 100 thousand yuan increased by 60% between 2011 and 2013. Over the same period,

  • the number of stores with sales between 10 thousand andmillion yuan increased by 30%, and

  • the number of stores with sales overmillion yuan increased by 33%. Taobao's total sales

  • exceededtrillion yuan in 2012. And on November 11, 2012, the biggest online shopping

  • promotion activity, Taobao accomplished 19.1 billion yuan sales in one day.

  • Tmall.com

  • Tmall.com was introduced in April 2008 as an online retail platform to complement the

  • Taobao consumer-to-consumer portal and became a separate business in June 2011. As of October

  • 2013 it was the eighth most visited web site in China, offering global brands to an increasingly

  • affluent Chinese consumer base. Juhuasuan

  • Juhuasuan.com is a group shopping website in China. It was launched by Taobao in March

  • 2010 and became a separate business in October 2011. Juhuasuan offers "flash sales," products

  • that are available only for a fixed time period, which can last from one or two days to a full

  • month. To buy at the discounted price, buyers must purchase the item within that defined

  • time. eTao

  • eTao.com was beta-launched by Taobao in October 2010 as a comparison shopping website, and

  • became a separate business in June 2011. It offers search results from most Chinese online

  • shopping platforms, including product searches, sales and coupon searches. Online shoppers

  • can use the site to compare prices from different sellers and identify products to buy. According

  • to the Alibaba Group web site, eTao offers products from Amazon China, Dangdang, Gome,

  • Yihaodian, Nike China and Vancl, as well as Taobao and Tmall.

  • Alipay Launched in 2004, Alipay.com is a third-party

  • online payment platform with no transaction fees. According to analyst research report,

  • Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just

  • under half of China's online payment market in February 2014. According to Credit Suisse,

  • the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008

  • to around RMBtrillion in 2012. Alipay provides an escrow service, in which

  • consumers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing

  • money to the seller. This service was offered for what the company says are China's weak

  • consumer protection laws, which have reduced consumer confidence in C2C and even B2C quality

  • control. The company says Alipay operates with more

  • than 65 financial institutions including Visa and Mastercard to provide payment services

  • for Taobao and Tmall as well as more than 460,000 Chinese businesses. Internationally,

  • more than 300 worldwide merchants use Alipay to sell directly to consumers in China. It

  • currently supports transactions in 12 foreign currencies.

  • The payment methods are MasterCard, Visa, Boleto Bancário, Transferência Bancária,

  • Maestro, WebMoney, and QIWI Кошелек as of May 2014.

  • The PBOC, China's central bank, issued licensing regulations in June 2010 for third-party payment

  • providers. It also issued separate guidelines for foreign-funded payment institutions. Because

  • of this, Alipay, which accounts for half of China's non-bank online payment market, was

  • restructured as a domestic company controlled by Alibaba CEO Jack Ma in order to facilitate

  • the regulatory approval for the license. The 2010 transfer of Alipay's ownership was controversial,

  • with media reports in 2011 that Yahoo! and Softbank were not informed of the sale for

  • nominal value. Chinese business publications Century Weekly criticised Ma, who stated that

  • Alibaba Group's board of directors was aware of the transaction. The incident was widely

  • criticized in foreign and Chinese media as harming foreign trust in making Chinese investments.

  • The ownership dispute was resolved by Alibaba Group, Yahoo!, and Softbank in July 2011.

  • In 2013 Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yuebao. As of June 2013 the

  • company still had what it called "a minor paperwork problem" with the China Securities

  • Regulatory Commission, but the company said that they planned to expand the product while

  • these are sorted out. Alibaba Cloud Computing

  • Alibaba Cloud Computing aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce

  • data mining e-commerce data processing, and data customization. It was established in

  • September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group.

  • AliExpress Launched in 2010, AliExpress.com is an online

  • retail service made up of mostly small sellers offering products to online buyers. The site

  • has registered users and buyers in more than 220 countries.

  • China Yahoo! In October 2005, Alibaba Group formed a strategic

  • partnership with Yahoo! and acquired China Yahoo!, a Chinese portal that focuses on Internet

  • services like news, email, and search. In April 2013, Alibaba Group announced that,

  • as part of the agreement to buy back the Yahoo! Mail stake, technological support for China

  • Yahoo! Mail service would be suspended and the China Yahoo! Mail account migration would

  • begin. Several options were offered to users to make the transition as smooth as possible,

  • and China Yahoo! users had four months to migrate their accounts to the Aliyun mail

  • service, the Yahoo! Mail service in the United States, or to another third-party e-mail provider

  • of the user's choice. Yahoo! China closed its mail service on August 19, 2013. E-mails

  • sent to Yahoo! China accounts can be forwarded to an Alimail box until December 31, 2014.

  • Users are also allowed to transfer e-mail accounts to yahoo.com or any other e-mail

  • service. It is estimated there are no more than a million users with Yahoo! Mail for

  • China and chances are they also own other e-mail accounts.

  • Laiwang In October 2013, the company's chairman Jack

  • Ma announced that the company would no longer use Tencent's messaging application WeChat,

  • and would henceforth promote its own messaging application and service, Laiwang.

  • ChinaVision Media Group In March 2014, Alibaba agreed to acquire a

  • controlling stake in ChinaVision Media Group for $804 million. The two firms announced

  • they would establish a strategic committee for potential future opportunities in online

  • entertainment and other media areas. Youku Tudou

  • In April 2014, Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity company controlled by Alibaba’s

  • founder, Jack Ma, agreed to acquire a combined 18.5 percent stake in Youku Tudou, which broadcasts

  • a series of popular television programs and other videos over the Internet.

  • 11 Main On June 11, 2014, Alibaba launched U.S. shopping

  • site 11 Main. The 11 Main marketplace hosts more than 1,000 merchants in categories such

  • as clothing, fashion accessories and jewelry as well as interior goods and arts and crafts

  • and it plans to keep adding more, the company said.

  • Corporate governance As of January 2013, Jack Ma was Alibaba Group's

  • chief executive officer. Ma announced his intention to step down from this post on January

  • 15, 2013. CEO Jonathan Lu confirmed this IPO again in

  • July 2013, quoted in the press as saying, “We are ready and can do an IPO any time.”

  • He also revealed that the firm has still not decided where to list, but is looking at the

  • stock exchanges of New York and Hong Kong. On September 25, 2013, a media report confirmed

  • that negotiations with Hong Kong regulators had deteriorated and a US IPO is being sought

  • by the company as of the date of the report. Analysts estimated that the Alibaba IPO would

  • have added US$25 million to the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing's annual revenues.

  • History The company was founded in the current CEO,

  • Jack Ma's Apartment. Jack Ma said, "One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, and

  • I was thinking Alibaba is a good name. And then a waitress came, and I said do you know

  • about Alibaba? And she said yes. I said what do you know about Alibaba, and she saidAlibaba

  • and 40 thieves'. And I said yes, this is the name! Then I went onto the street and found

  • 30 people and asked them, ‘Do you know Alibaba?’ People from India, people from Germany, people

  • from Tokyo and ChinaThey all knew about Alibaba. Alibabaopen sesame. Alibaba

  • is a kind, smart business person, and he helped the village. Soeasy to spell, and globally

  • known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We also registered

  • the name Alimama, in case someone wants to marry us!"

  • Company timeline In December 1998, Jack Ma and other 17 founders

  • released their first online marketplace named "Alibaba Online".

  • From 1999 to 2000, Alibaba Group raised a total of US$25 million from SoftBank, Goldman

  • Sachs, Fidelity and some other institutions. In December 2001, Alibaba.com achieved profitability.

  • In May 2003, Taobao was founded as a consumer e-commerce platform.

  • In December 2004, Alipay, which started as a service on the Taobao platform, became a

  • separate business. In October 2005, Alibaba Group took over the

  • operation of China Yahoo! as part of its strategic partnership with Yahoo! Inc.

  • In November, 2007, Alibaba.com successfully listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

  • In April 2008, Taobao established Taobao Mall, a retail website, to complement its C2C marketplace.

  • In September 2008, Alibaba Group R&D Institute was established.

  • In September 2009, Alibaba Group established Alibaba Cloud Computing in conjunction with

  • its 10-year anniversary. In May 2010, Alibaba Group announced a plan

  • to earmark 0.3% of its annual revenues to fund environmental protection initiatives.

  • In October 2010, Taobao beta-launched eTao as a shopping search engine.

  • In June 2011, Alibaba Group reorganized Taobao into three separate companies: Taobao Marketplace,

  • Taobao Mall and eTao. In July 2011, Alibaba Cloud Computing launched

  • its first self-developed mobile operating system, Aliyun OS over K-Touch Cloud Smartphone.

  • In January 2012, Tmall.com changed its Chinese name as part of a rebranding exercise.

  • In March 2014, Alibaba group said it will begin the process of filing for an initial

  • public offering in the U.S. Prior to its IPO filing on Form F-1 as a foreign

  • issuer in the U.S., Alibaba undertook an aggressive acquisition spree - previously atypical for

  • the company - acquiring numerous majority and minority stakes in companies including

  • micro-blogging service Weibo, China Vision Holdings, and car sharing service Lyft.

  • On May 6, 2014 Alibaba Group filed registration documents to go public in the U.S. in what

  • may be one of the biggest initial public offerings in American history.

  • On June 5, 2014 Alibaba group agreed to take a 50 percent stake in Guangzhou Evergrande

  • Football Club, winners of 2013 Asian Champions League, for 1.2 billion yuan.

  • In June 2014, Alibaba acquired the Chinese mobile internet firm UCWeb. The price of the

  • purchase has not been disclosed but the company did claim that the acquisition creates the

  • biggest merger in the history of China's internet sector.

  • Gold Supplier membership and related controversy Alibaba.com offers a Gold Supplier membership

  • to try to ensure that each seller is genuine. "To qualify for a Gold Supplier membership,

  • a supplier must complete an authentication and verification process by a reputable third-party

  • security service provider appointed by Alibaba.com". While the majority of suppliers are reported

  • to be genuine, there have been cases of sellers seeking to defraud unsuspecting buyers. In

  • February, 2011 controversy ensued when Alibaba's corporate office admitted that it had granted

  • the mark of integrity of itsChina Gold Supplierprogram to more than 2,000 dealers

  • that had subsequently defrauded buyers; the firm's share price dropped "abruptly" after

  • the announcement. A statement from the firm reported than Yan Limin, the General Manager

  • of Alibaba.com at the time, had been dismissed in March for "misconduct"; Phil Muncaster

  • of UK's The Register additionally reported that "a further 28 employees had been involved

  • in dodgy dealings". As the Economist noted, the company's response has conflicting components:

  • Alibaba's promulgated view that its corrective actions indicate its commitment to quality

  • and integrity, versus a damage control view suggesting that the subscription-driven, third-party

  • verifiedChina Gold Supplierprogram was endangered by diminished trust in its

  • endorsement system, removing the incentive for global buyers to choosing Alibaba as their

  • Business-to-business service, thus more broadly endangering Alibaba through impact on its

  • brand and capabilities. Overall, the scandal has placed the head of Alibaba Group, Jack

  • Mawho is described as having been furious over the scandalin a position to personally

  • fight to win back trust. Research and development

  • Alibaba introduced the Alibaba Group R&D institute in 2008. One year later, Alibaba filed around

  • 350 patent and utility model applications. Brick and mortar stores

  • According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013

  • to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate

  • company Wanda. Shark fin sales

  • In December 2008, Alibaba.com Corporation, the parent corporation of Taobao.com and Alibaba.com,

  • announced that all Alibaba group websites will be shark fin-free on January 1, 2009.

  • Uranium sales In May 2012, a US law enforcement agent posing

  • as an American broker representing persons in Iran, posted an advert on Alibaba.com seeking

  • to purchase uranium. In August 2013, Patrick Campbell of Sierra Leone was arrested at New

  • York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. Mr Campbell is accused of seeking to arrange

  • the export of the yellowcake from Sierra Leone to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, packed

  • in drums and disguised as the mineral chromite. When confronted, he admitted to having brought

  • a sample of raw uranium ore with him, the complaint says. As of August 23, 2013, the

  • listing was removed from Alibaba.com as it was in violation of Alibaba.com's policy on

  • Firearms, Ammunition and Weapons: "Any servicing, instruction, processing, or aid of producing

  • any biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons, or any other Weapons of Mass Destruction or

  • its known associated agents is strictly prohibited by international law and is accordingly prohibited

  • on the Site." References

  • External links Alibaba.com USAIndia

  • Alibaba UK Aliexpress

Alibaba Group is a privately owned Hangzhou-based group of Internet-based e-commerce businesses

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アリババグループ (Alibaba Group)

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    iepavb に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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