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  • So uh, so this is Anna Hazare,

    翻訳: Naomi Mandel 校正: Eriko T

  • and Anna Hazare may well be the most cutting-edge digital activist in the world today.

    これはアナ・ハザレ氏です

  • And you wouldn’t know it by looking at him.

    今日 世界でもっとも斬新な

  • Hazare is a 77-year-old Indian anticorruption and social justice activist.

    デジタル活動家です

  • And in 2011, he was running a big campaign to address everyday corruption in India,

    見かけだけでは 判断できませんが

  • a topic that Indian elites love to ignore.

    彼は77歳インド人の 反汚職 社会正義活動家です

  • So as part of this campaign,

    2011年 彼は大規模な 社会運動を行っていました

  • he was using all of the traditional tactics that a good Gandhian organizer would use.

    インド人エリート達が好んで無視する問題

  • So he was on a hunger strike,

    インドにおける汚職問題に切り込む為です

  • and Hazare realized through his hunger that actually maybe this time,

    彼は このキャンペーンに

  • in the 21st century, a hunger strike wouldn’t be enough.

    昔からあるような

  • So he started playing around with mobile activism.

    良きガンジー派が使うであろう 数々の戦術を使い

  • So the first thing he did is he said to people,

    ハンガーストライキを用いました

  • Okay, why don’t you send me a text message

    そしてハザレ氏は 空腹のうちに気づきました―

  • if you support my campaign against corruption?”

    今回は

  • So he does this, he gives people a short code,

    この21世紀では

  • and about 80,000 people do it.

    ハンガーストライキだけでは だめだと

  • Okay, that’s pretty respectable.

    そこで 携帯電話を使った モバイル戦術を始めました

  • But then he decides, “Let me tweak my tactics a little bit.”

    まず最初に 人々に

  • He says, “Why don’t you leave me a missed call?”

    「では 私の反汚職キャンペーンを

  • Now, for those of you who have lived in the global South,

    支持する方は 私に

  • youll know that missed calls are a really critical part of global mobile culture.

    テキストメッセージを送ってください」

  • I see people nodding.

    と言うと

  • People leave missed calls all the time.

    およそ8万人もの人々が それに答えました

  • If youre running late for a meeting and you just want to let them know

    良い結果ですね

  • that youre on the way, you leave them a missed call.

    それから 彼は

  • If youre dating someone and you just want to say “I miss youyou leave them a missed call.

    戦術を少し変えてみました

  • So a note for a dating tip here,

    「私に電話をかけて 着信履歴だけ 残して切って下さい」と言いました

  • in some cultures, if you want to please your lover,

    このすぐ電話を切るということ

  • you call them and hang up.

    おわかりですね

  • So why do people leave missed calls?

    このモバイル社会では 重要な意味があります

  • Well, the reason of course is that

    皆さん うなずいておられる

  • theyre trying to avoid charges associated with making calls and sending texts.

    これは良く使われる手法です

  • So when Hazare asked people to leave him a missed call,

    待ち合わせに遅れそうになり

  • um you know, let’s have a little guess how many people actually did this?

    もうすぐ来ると 伝えたいとき

  • Thirty-five million.

    電話を掛けて着信履歴だけを残します

  • So this is one of the largest coordinated actions in human history.

    恋人に「会いたい」と伝えたい時

  • It’s remarkable.

    着信履歴を残します

  • And this reflects the extraordinary strength of the emerging Indian middle class

    いくつかの文化圏での

  • and the power that their mobile phones bring.

    デートのワザですが

  • But he used that, Hazare ended up with this massive CSV file of mobile phone numbers,

    恋人を喜ばせる為に

  • and he used that to deploy real people power on the ground

    電話を掛けてワン切りをする(笑)

  • to get hundreds of thousands of people out on the streets in Delhi

    何の為に着信履歴だけを 残すなんてことをするのでしょうか?

  • to make a national point of everyday corruption in India.

    理由のひとつは

  • It’s a really striking story.

    電話をかけたりメッセージを送る際の

  • So this is me when I was 12 years old.

    通信料を避けたい という事があります

  • I hope you see the resemblance.

    ハザレ氏が着信履歴を残すように 人々に呼びかけた時

  • And I was also an activist, and I have been an activist all my life.

    何人がそれに答えたと思いますか?

  • I had this really funny childhood where I traipsed around the world meeting world leaders and Nobel prize winners,

    3千5百万人です

  • talking about Third World debt, as it was then called, and demilitarization.

    史上最大の組織活動でした

  • I was a very, very serious child.

    驚くべきことです

  • And back then, in the early 90s,

    これは インド中流社会の 目を見張るような勢いでの発展と

  • I had a very cutting-edge tech tool of my own, the fax.

    彼らの携帯電話がもたらす力を 反映しています

  • And the fax was the tool of my activism.

    ハザレ氏は

  • And at that time, it was the best way to get a message to a lot of people all at once.

    ここで大量に得た

  • And so I’ll give you one example of a fax campaign that I ran.

    携帯電話番号データを使い

  • It was the eve of the Gulf War and I organized a global campaign to flood the hotel, the Intercontinental in Geneva,

    人々の力を結集させ

  • where James Baker and Tariq Aziz were meeting on the eve of the war,

    何千もの人々をデリーの大通りに集め

  • and I thought if I could flood them with faxes, well stop the war.

    日常起こるインドの汚職に反旗を翻したのです

  • Well, unsurprisingly, that campaign was wholly unsuccessful.

    すごいことです

  • You know and there are lots of reasons for that,

    これは 私が12歳の頃です

  • but there’s no doubt that one sputtering fax machine in Geneva was a little bit of a bandwidth constraint

    面影があるでしょう?

  • in terms of the ability to get a message to lots of people.

    その頃から 社会活動家でした

  • And so, you know, I went on to discover some better tools.

    そしてそれからずっとそうです

  • I cofounded Avaaz, which uses the internet to mobilize people

    変な子供時代

  • and now has almost 40 million members,

    あちこち駆け回っては

  • And I now run Purpose,

    世界の大物や ノーベル賞受賞者に 会いに行って

  • which is a home for these kinds of technology-powered movements.

    第3世界の債務を議論し

  • So, so what’s the moral of this story?

    その頃 そう呼ばれてましたね

  • Is the moral of this story, you know what, the fax is kind of eclipsed by the mobile phone?

    軍国主義からの開放も議論しました

  • This is another story of tech-determinism?

    とっても まじめな子供だったんです(笑)

  • Well, I would argue that there’s actually more to it than that.

    その頃

  • I’d argue that in the last 20 years, something more fundamental has changed than just new tech.

    90年代の初め

  • I would argue that there has been a fundamental shift in the balance of power in the world.

    私は最新のテクノロジーを持っていました

  • You ask any activist how to understand the world, and theyll say,

    ファックスです

  • Look at where the power is, who has it, how it’s shifting.”

    ファックスが 私の社会活動の道具でした

  • And I think we all sense that something big is happening.

    当時 これは画期的な機械で

  • So Henry Timms and I,

    多くの人々にメッセージを 送ることができました

  • Henry’s a fellow movement builder,

    それも一度に です

  • got talking one day and we started to think,

    私の ファックス作戦の一つを ご紹介しましょう

  • how can we make sense of this new world?

    湾岸戦争が始まる前日

  • How can we describe it and give it a framework that makes it more useful,

    ジェイムズ・ベイカー氏と タリク・アジズ氏が会談していた

  • because we realized that many of the lessons that we were discovering in movements

    ジュネーブのホテルに

  • actually applied all over the world in many sectors of our society.

    世界中から大量の

  • So I want to introduce you to this framework:

    ファックスを送って

  • Old power, meet new power.

    ホテルをファックスで溢れかえらせて 戦争を止めよう―

  • And I want to talk to you about what new power is today.

    という作戦でした

  • New power is the deployment of mass participation and peer coordination,

    当然の事ながら

  • these are the two key elements,

    その作戦は失敗に終わりました

  • to create change and shift outcomes.

    その理由は沢山あります

  • And we see new power all around us.

    ジュネーブのファックス一台が何を吐き出しても

  • This is Beppe Grillo. He was a populist Italian blogger who,

    多くの人にメッセージを伝える力は

  • with a minimal political apparatus and only some online tools,

    あまりに非力でした

  • won more than 25 percent of the vote in recent Italian elections.

    なので 他の道具を探してみました

  • This is Airbnb, which in just a few years has radically disrupted the hotel industry

    インターネットで人々に行動を呼びかける

  • without owning a single square foot of real estate.

    アバーズという組織を立ち上げました 今では4千万の会員がいます

  • This is Kickstarter, which we know has raised over a billion dollars from more than five million people.

    そして今はパーパス(目的)という名の

  • Now, were familiar with all of these models.

    テクノロジーを駆使した 社会運動組織を運営しています

  • But what’s striking is the commonalities,

    この話の教訓とは何でしょう?

  • the structural features of these new models and how they differ from old power.

    さあ ここでの教訓は

  • Let’s look a little bit at this.

    携帯電話技術がファックスを凌いでしまった そういうことでしょうか?

  • Old power is held like a currency.

    これも技術決定論の一例だ といったことでしょうか?

  • New power works like a current.

    いえ 教訓はそれ以上だと思います

  • Old power is held by a few.

    ここ20年で

  • New power isn’t held by a few, it’s made by many.

    新技術だけでなく

  • Old power is all about download, and new power uploads.

    もっと根本的なことが変化しました

  • And you see a whole set of characteristics that you can trace,

    世界で もっと根本的な

  • whether it’s in media or politics or education.

    パワーの移動が起こったのだと

  • So weve talked a little bit about what new power is.

    考えています

  • Let’s, for a second, talk about what new power isn’t.

    社会活動家に世界をどう読むか と尋ねると

  • New power is not your Facebook page.

    こう言うでしょう「パワーがどこにあり誰が持っているか

  • I assure you that having a social media strategy can enable you to do just as much download

    それがどう移り変わっていくかを見ろ」と

  • as you used to do when you had the radio.

    皆が今 何か大きな事が 起こっていると感じています

  • Just ask Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad,

    同じ社会活動家の

  • I assure you that his Facebook page has not embraced the power of participation.

    ヘンリー・ティムズと私は

  • New power is not inherently positive.

    ある日 今の新しい世界をどう解釈するかを

  • In fact, this isn’t a normative argument that were making,

    話し合い始めました

  • there are many good things about new power, but it can produce bad outcomes.

    新しい時代を言い表し

  • More participation, more peer coordination, sometimes distorts outcomes

    それを活用する為の枠組みを どう築いていくかを です

  • and there are some things, like things, for example, in the medical profession

    なぜなら

  • that we want new power to get nowhere near.

    我々が 今までムーブメントから 発見してきた事の多くは

  • And thirdly, new power is not the inevitable victor.

    世界中のあらゆるセクターで 実際に起こっている

  • In fact, unsurprisingly, as many of these new power models get to scale,

    ということに気づいたからです

  • what you see is this massive pushback from the forces of old power.

    ここで 私の構想を紹介します

  • Just look at this really interesting epic struggle going on right now

    古いパワーが新しいパワーと出会うのです

  • between Edward Snowden and the NSA.

    今日の新しいパワーとは

  • Youll note that only one of the two people on this slide is currently in exile.

    多くの人たちの参加を促すパワー

  • And so, it’s not at all clear that new power will be the inevitable victor.

    仲間と協力するパワー

  • That said, keep one thing in mind:

    これらは 変化をもたらしたり

  • Were at the beginning of a very steep curve.

    結果を左右する 重大な要素です

  • So you think about some of these new power models, right?

    そして私たちは 至る所に新しいパワーを見かけます

  • These were just like someone’s, like, garage idea a few years ago,

    これは ベッペ・グリッロ氏

  • and now theyre, like you know, disrupting entire industries.

    イタリア人で人気のブロガーです

  • And so, what’s interesting about new power is the way it feeds on itself.

    最小限の政治組織とインターネットだけで

  • Once you have an experience of new power, you tend to expect and want more of it.

    最近のイタリアの選挙で

  • So let’s say youve used a peer-to-peer lending platform like Lending Tree or Prosper,

    25%以上の票を得ました

  • then youve figured out that you don’t need the bank,

    これは Airbnb (エアビーアンドビー)

  • and who wants the bank, right?

    ここ 2〜3年で

  • And so, that experience tends to embolden you.

    ホテル業界に変革をもたらしました

  • It tends to make you want more participation across more aspects of your life.

    物件を一つも所有しない 宿泊ビジネスです

  • And what this gives rise to is a set of values.

    こちらは Kickstarter (キックスターター)

  • Weve talked about the models that new power has engendered, the Airbnbs, the Kickstarters.

    5百万人以上から

  • What about the values?

    10億ドル以上を集めました

  • And this is an early sketch at what new power values look like.

    私たちにはもう見慣れた ビジネスモデルですね

  • New power values prize transparency above all else.

    これらの新しいモデルの 構造は似かよっていますが

  • It’s almost a religious belief in transparency,

    古いパワーとでは

  • a belief that if you shine a light on something, it will be better.

    大きな違いがあります

  • And remember that in the 20th century, this is not at all true.

    これを見てください

  • People thought that gentlemen should sit behind closed doors and make comfortable agreements.

    古いパワーは 通貨のように所有されましたが

  • New power values of informal, networked governance.

    新しいパワーは潮流に似ています

  • New power folks would never have invented the U.N. today, for better or worse.

    古いパワーは 少数に握られていますが

  • New power values participation, and new power is all about do-it-yourself.

    新しいパワーは 大勢の参加によって作られます

  • In fact, what’s interesting about new power is that

    古いパワーは ダウンロード方式

  • it eschews some of the professionalization and specialization

    対して新しいパワーは つまりアップロードです

  • that was all the rage in the 20th century.

    そうした新しいパワーの数々の特徴の片鱗を

  • So what’s interesting about these new power values and these new power models

    メディア、政界、教育、何の分野であれ 至るところに見ることが出来ます

  • is what they mean for organizations.

    これまで 新しいパワーについて 話してきました

  • So weve spent a bit of time thinking,

    では 新しいパワーでは無い物とは?

  • okay how can we plot organizations on a two-by-two where, essentially,

    それはあなたの フェイスブックページではありません

  • we look at new power values and new power models and see where different people sit?

    ソーシャルメディアは

  • We started with a U.S. analysis, and let me show you some interesting findings.

    情報をダウンロードするだけ という点で

  • So the first is Apple.

    ラジオと変わりありません

  • In this framework, we actually described Apple an old power company.

    シリアの独裁者アサドに聞いてみてください

  • That’s because the ideology, the governing ideology of Apple is

    彼のフェイスブックには

  • the ideology of the perfectionist product designer in Cupertino.

    参加者によって作られたパワーはありません

  • It’s absolutely about hat beautiful, perfect thing descending upon us in perfection.

    新しいパワーは必ずしも肯定的なものだ というわけではありません

  • And it does not value, as a company, transparency.

    新しいパワーを決めつけるための 議論しているわけではありませんが

  • In fact, it’s very secretive.

    新しいパワーには 多くの良い点がありますが

  • Now, Apple is one of the most successful companies in the world.

    同時に 悪い結果を招くこともあるわけです

  • So this shows that you can still pursue a successful old power strategy.

    参加者が増えると その分 意見の摺り合わせの必要も増えます

  • But one can argue that there’s real vulnerabilities in that model.

    それで結果を歪めたりもします

  • I think another interesting comparison is that of the Obama campaign versus the Obama presidency.

    時には 医療のように

  • Now, I like President Obama, he ran with new power at his back, right?

    新しいパワー(による決定の仕方)には全く

  • And he said to people, we are the ones weve been waiting for.

    関わってもらいたくない分野もあります

  • And he used crowdfunding to power a campaign.

    第3に 新しいパワーが 必ず勝つとも限りません

  • But when he got into office, he governed like more or less all the other presidents did.

    実際 当然の事ながら

  • And this is a really interesting trend, is when new power gets powerful, what happens?

    多くのこのような新しいパワーモデルが ある程度の規模に育つと

  • So this is a framework you should look at and think about where your own organization sits on it.

    古いパワーによって 押し返されたり するのを

  • And think about where it should be in 5 or 10 years.

    目にするでしょう

  • So what do you do if youre old power?

    見てください

  • Well, if youre there thinking, in old power, you know hwat, this won’t happen to us.

    エドワード・スノーデン氏と 米国家安全保障局長官

  • Then just look at the Wikipedia entry for Encyclopedia Britannica.

    この二人のうち 一人は

  • Let me tell you, it’s a very sad read.

    国外亡命中です

  • But if you are old power, the most important thing you can do

    新しいパワーが

  • is to occupy yourself before others occupy you, before you are occupied.

    必ず勝つとは限りません

  • Imagine that a group of your biggest skeptics are camped in the heart of your organization asking the toughest questions

    とは言え私たちは今

  • and they can see everything inside of your organization.

    とは言え私たちは今 急カーブに

  • And ask them, would they like what they see and should our model change?

    差し掛かっていることを 覚えておいてください

  • What about if youre new power?

    数年前誰かが始めた

  • Is new power just kind of riding the wave to glory?

    オリジナルのアイデアだったものが

  • I would argue no.

    今 あらゆる業界で革新をもたらしています

  • I would argue that there are some very real challenges to new power in this nascent phase.

    この新しいパワーが面白いのは

  • Let’s stick with the Occupy Wall Street example for a moment.

    力の泉を自らが沸き起こしていることです

  • Occupy was this incredible example of new power, the purest example of new power.

    一度新しいパワーを経験をしたら

  • And yet, it failed to consolidate.

    もっとそれを体験したくなることでしょう

  • So the energy that it created was great for the meme phase,

    ピア・ツー・ピアの Lending TreeやProsperで

  • but they were so committed to participation,

    資金調達を取り付けたとします

  • that they never got anything done.

    すると もう銀行など

  • And in fact that model means that the challenge for new power is:

    必要ないと思うでしょう

  • How do you use institutional power without being institutionalized?

    こんな経験をしたら更に

  • On the other end of the spectra is Uber.

    生活のいろんな面でも

  • Uber is an amazing, highly scalable new power model.

    ソーシャル参加の力を 欲するようになるでしょう

  • That network is getting denser and denser by the day.

    価値観も

  • But what’s really interesting about Uber is it hasn’t really adopted new power values.

    変わってきます

  • This is a real quote from the Uber CEO recently.

    ここまで 新しいパワーが生んだ

  • He says, you know, “Once we get rid of that dude in the car,”

    ビジネスモデルについてお話しました

  • he means drivers,

    Airbnb と Kickstarter です

  • Uber will be cheaper.”

    では その価値観は?

  • Now, new power models live and die by the strength of their networks.

    まだ初期の段階での感触ですが

  • By whether the drivers and the consumers who use the service actually believe in it.

    新しいパワーの価値観は

  • Because theyre not an exercise of top-down perfectionism,

    何よりも その透明性を重要視します

  • they are about the network.

    透明性というものには ライトを当てて透かしてみると

  • And so, the challenge, and this is why it’s in no way surprising that Uber’s drivers are now unionizing.

    もっと良くなる

  • It’s extraordinary.

    そんな信仰的な通念があります

  • Uber’s drivers are turning on Uber.

    20世紀は そうではなかったことを 思い出して下さい

  • And the challenge for Uber,

    ドアに閉ざされた向こう側で

  • this isntan easy situation for them,.

    紳士協定を結ぶのが良いのだと 信じられていました

  • is that they are locked into a broader superstructure that is really old power.

    新しいパワーは 非公式なネットワークによる 統治に価値を認めます

  • Theyve raised more than a billion dollars in the capital markets.

    良きにつけ 悪しきにつけ

  • Those markets expect a financial return,

    これでは 今日の国連は発足できなかったでしょう

  • and the way you get a financial return is by squeezing and squeezing your users and your drivers

    新しいパワーでは 参加する事

  • for more and more value and giving that value to your investors.

    自分でする ということに意義があります

  • So the big question about the future of new power, in my view, is:

    面白いことに新しいパワーは

  • Will that old power just emerge?

    20世紀にもてはやされた ある種のプロフェッショナリズムや

  • So will new power elites just become old power and squeeze?

    専門性といったものを回避しています

  • Or will that new power base bite back?

    専門性といったものを回避しています

  • Will the next big Uber be co-owned by Uber drivers?

    新しいパワーの価値 モデルの

  • And I think this is going to be a very interesting structural question.

    興味深い点は

  • Finally, think about new power being more than just an entity that

    それが組織にとって 意味する事です

  • scales things that make us have slightly better consumer experiences.

    組織の種類を4マスの表に

  • My call to action for new power is