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  • Queen Lion of the animal kingdom is looking to improve her democracy. She recently allowed

  • citizens to elect representatives to the Jungle Council which governs the kingdom.

  • However, she recognizes that her citizens are not happy with the voting system. Let’s

  • watch an election on one of the small islands of her Kingdom to see why:

  • On this island there are three political parties: the two big ones: Kea and Tuatara, and a small

  • third party, Kakapo.

  • On election day, the citizens each cast one vote for a local candidate they want to represent

  • the range they live in. The results are as follows:

  • With the average across the island that Tuatara gets 49%, Kea gets 48% and Kakapo gets 3%.

  • The election is run using First Past the Post, meaning that candidate with the most votes

  • wins. Because Tuatara got the most votes in each range, they get to control 100% of the

  • seats on the council.

  • And this is why so many citizens are unhappy. The majority of them, the 51% who voted for

  • other parties, get no representation on the council at all.

  • This seems unfair to Queen Lion but she’s not sure how to fix it. The citizens like

  • having local representatives and don’t want to change the range boundaries.

  • But luckily Kiwi, one of the citizens of this island, has a suggestion for Queen Lion on

  • how she can make the system better while keeping local representation and leaving the ranges

  • as they are.

  • The idea is called Mixed Member Proportional or MMP and it makes two changes: the number

  • of seats on the council is doubled and each citizen gets two votes, not one.

  • Here’s how it works:

  • At first, election day for Kiwi is just the same as before.

  • He gets a list of candidates running to represent his local range on the council. Kiwi picks

  • one and the winner will be the candidate with the most votes.

  • So far the system is no betterTuatara again wins all the local elections and still

  • more than half of the citizens don’t have any representation. But here’s how Kiwi’s

  • second voteand those extra seats on the councilfix this.

  • Kiwi uses his second vote to pick his favorite political party.

  • These second votes are tallied up and show the percentage of support that each of the

  • political parties has among the citizens as a whole and reveals how imbalanced the council

  • is so far.

  • To fix this imbalance, members of the political parties are added, one at a time, to make

  • the council more proportional.

  • Tuatara is the most over-represented and Kea the most underrepresented, so Kea gets the

  • first empty seat.

  • This continues, adding one Kea at a time until both Turatara and Kea are over-represented

  • and Kakapo is under-represented, so they get the final seat.

  • Now, the jungle council represents, as close as possible, the actual preferences of the

  • citizenswhich is a huge improvement over the old, first past the post method.

  • There is, however, one interesting question that should arise at this point:

  • Exactly who decides which members of the parties get those extra seats?

  • The way it works is that, before the election, the political parties make a list of their

  • favorite candidates in the order that they want them to get on the council.

  • So, if there is only get one extra seat, the name at the top of their list is chosen. If

  • they get two seats, the first two are chosen, and so on.

  • This makes MMP a bit different from other voting methods in that it makes political

  • parties an official part of the way the election works.

  • This may give the party leaders greater control over their members because they can reward

  • or punish their actions by changing their placement on the party list.

  • While this may be a disadvantage of MMP there are a number of other benefits that Queen

  • Lion, in particular, likes.

  • Because fewer votes are wasted, it mostly Eliminates Gerrymandering and prevents minority

  • rule.

  • It also gives more choice to the citizens by encouraging political diversity.

  • This point is worth expanding on.

  • Notice how, with MMP, the percentage of votes for the local representatives isn’t the

  • same as for the parties. This is because in the local elections, citizens have to vote

  • strategically.

  • For example, Kakapo voters don’t like Tuatara at all, but they can tolerate Kea. Since there

  • are so few Kakapo voters they know that their candidate doesn’t have a chance of winning

  • the local election, so it’s really a race between the two big parties. Thus many of

  • the Kakapo will vote Kea in the hope that he might win and be their representative.

  • However, when it comes to voting for their favorite political party, this strategy doesn’t

  • matter. The more votes a party gets the more representatives it has on the council.

  • So citizens are free to vote for smaller parties they like like knowing that every vote counts.

  • Queen Lion reviews her options and decides to switch her Kingdom to MMP. Now, for the

  • first time, the Jungle Council is a true reflection of what her citizens want.

Queen Lion of the animal kingdom is looking to improve her democracy. She recently allowed


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B1 中級

混合議員比例代表の説明 (Mixed-Member Proportional Representation Explained)

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    稲葉白兎 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日