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  • Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is causative verbs. And this is

  • a different structure we use in sentences when it's important to show authority and

  • important to show someone who's deciding an action. So how I'm going to introduce these

  • verbs to you is to show you some example sentences first. Some are in the causative structure;

  • some are not in the causative structure. So let's have a look.

  • Sentence No. 1, "John cleans the windows for me." That's the structure you already know.

  • What's important in this sentence is the subject, John. He's the man cleaning the windows. Okay.

  • You know that. It's easy.

  • Sentence 2, "I have John clean the windows for me." This is the introduction to the causative

  • structure. We've got causative have. What's different about this sentence? "John" is now

  • in the object position, and "I" is in the subject position. So what's different about

  • this is -- we still know that John is cleaning the windows, but what's different is you are

  • becoming important because you have the authority to make that happen. So it gives us a little

  • bit more information about what's important here.

  • Let's have a look at No. 3. "I have the windows cleaned." What's missing in this sentence

  • is we don't know who's doing the cleaning anymore. It's not important because we don't

  • have John's name here. So something is missing in this one. No. 4, "I get John to clean the

  • windows." This structure is causative get, and we can use it in the same way as causative

  • have -- the same way as this. And again, it's like an order or a task John is given to do,

  • and you have the authority to make that happen.

  • No. 5, "I make John clean the windows." Then you really -- you're not being very nice to

  • him. You're forcing him. And poor John has no choice. You've got to be his boss, maybe

  • his wife. I don't know, but you're not being very nice to him.

  • And let's have a look at No. 6. This is causative let. And we use this for permission. "I let

  • John clean the windows for me." What does that mean? He's begging you. He's saying,

  • "Please. Can I come and clean your windows?" So you can see they have different meanings

  • here. But what we're going to do in the next part of the lesson is look at the structure

  • you need to use to build that kind of sentence.

  • But before we get there, when can you use causative structures? Well, you need to have

  • some kind of authority relationship. So you need, like, a boss and an employee or a teacher

  • and a pupil, okay? Or you need a parent and a child. Otherwise, the causative structure's

  • just not going to work. You can't say to your colleague, "I make my colleague bring me tea."

  • You probably can't say that unless you bully your colleague. It's not going to work.

  • So let's start by looking at the structure now. Causative have and get are the same structure

  • for this meaning. So you choose "have" or "get" and then your object and then a past

  • participle. And what's useful to remember about this? Wherever you have a job done in

  • your house -- you have something fixed or your car fixed or something redesigned or

  • something changed in your house -- you use this causative structure. So here are some

  • examples. "She had the kitchen redecorated." "I'm getting the car fixed." So you can use

  • it in the different tenses as well.

  • Let's have a look at the other causative structures that you need to know. So we've got causative

  • get. And this is a different meaning, this one. We use this one when you want to persuade

  • someone or -- no, when you have persuaded someone to do something. So for example, "I

  • got Tom to lend me some money." He didn't want to lend you some money, but you spoke

  • to him nicely; you did some sweet talk, and you got him to lend you some money. So that

  • means persuaded him to do something for you.

  • Here's another example. "We got them to reduce the price." Perhaps you're in a shop. You're

  • an angry customer, a displeased customer. You got them to reduce the price. "Reduce

  • the price or I'm not buying it." And somehow, you managed it. So that's causative get. It's

  • get + object + to infinitive. So here's "get"; "Tom" is the object; there is "to", so infinitive

  • and verb. "I got Tom to lend me some money." There's the structure. And it's different

  • to the other structure that we just looked at because in that other structure, we don't

  • have "to" there. So it's different.

  • Let's look now at causative make and let. Remember that "make" means "force someone",

  • and "let" means to do with permission -- give someone permission. Let's have a look at the

  • sentences. "Mum made me eat my vegetables." So a child would probably say this. The child

  • is being forced to eat vegetables. "Make", object is "me", and this time the verb, but

  • no "to". "Mum made me eat my vegetables."

  • Another example. "My boss makes us work late." You have no choice. It's probably illegal

  • if that's not in your contract.

  • Next example. These ones are with "let". "My parents don't let me eat junk food." If you

  • want to make it negative, the negative goes before your verb there, before your "let".

  • "My patients don't let me eat junk food."

  • And the last example, "Tom let Sarah leave the office early." Tom has the authority to

  • decide if Sarah can leave now or later or early. So there you go.

  • You can use these causative structures whenever you have someone in a position of authority

  • and stuff happens because they need to persuade someone to do something or force someone to

  • do something or permit someone to do something. So this is a new structure for you to be using

  • in your English.

  • What you can do now is go to the EngVid website and do the quiz on this just to make sure

  • you've got the grammar fixed in your mind, you know where to use a "to", where not to

  • use a "to" in these structures. But before you go there, I'd really appreciate it if

  • you subscribed here on my EngVid channel. And that's it. So come back and watch more

  • videos with me soon. And I'll see you later. Bye.

Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is causative verbs. And this is


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A2 初級

責任者は誰ですか?- 英語の因果動詞 (Who is in charge? - Causative Verbs in English)

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    Ashley Chen に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日