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  • Hi. It's Mr. Andersen and this AP Physics essentials video 24. It is on the gravitational

  • force which is the force an object with mass experiences when it is placed inside a gravitational

  • field. And on our planet we call that its weight. So imagine I say take this orange

  • and go weigh it for me. Well you might not know what device am I going to use to figure

  • out its weight. We have only talked about gravitational and inertial mass so far. Would

  • you use a balance? No. That measures the mass. You would use a scale. That is going to measure

  • the weight. Now you might say that is crazy. They both have the same answer. They are both

  • going to be 0.200 kilograms. But what I would say is that balance measures the mass and

  • it is never going to change, the mass of an object. So if we were to take both of these

  • devices to the moon, that balance is still going to measure 0.200 kilograms. There is

  • less gravitational field on the moon, less force, and that is going to affect both the

  • orange the weights on the other side. But you can see that the scale is going to give

  • us a lower value. And if we were to take that scale and the orange and just drop it and

  • let it free fall to the planet it would measure 0.0. And so a scale measures weight because

  • it is measuring that gravitational force. And I would also say this is not correct units.

  • We have to measure that in newtons. And we will go through that in just a second. And

  • so if you take any object that has mass and place it inside a gravitational field it is

  • going to experience a gravitational force. And it is really easy to calculate that gravitational

  • force. Remember it is a vector in the direction of the gravitational field. But all you do

  • is take the m or the mass and you multiple it times g, which is also a vector. And it

  • measures the strength of the gravitational field or the gravitational field's strength.

  • And so on our planet that gravitational force is going to be equal to its weight. It is

  • the weight of the object. Now let's say we take something like an orange and we just

  • drop it and it goes in free fall, then we would note that the acceleration of that orange,

  • as it falls towards the earth is going to be numerically equal to the gravitational

  • field strength. The units are going to be different, but on our planet it is always

  • going to be 9.8. And so remember a gravitational field is going to be created by any object

  • that has mass. And since we are sitting on the earth all of that is going to go towards

  • the center of the earth. But since the earth is so large we can treat these field vectors

  • as essentially being parallel to each other. And so if we take an object and place it inside

  • that gravitational field it is really easy to figure out its gravitational force. It

  • is simply m times g. Or the mass of the object times the gravitational field strength. Now

  • you know that the mass is always measured in kilograms. And the gravitational field

  • strength will be measured in newtons per kilogram. And so let's go to that orange. It is has

  • got a mass of 0.20 kilograms. What is the gravitational field strength? It is going

  • to be 9.8 newtons per kilogram. And so all we do is multiply those two values together

  • and I get a gravitational force or a force vector of 2.0 newtons. So that is going to

  • be the force acting on that orange. And so if we were to just let it go in a gravitational

  • field, what is it going to do? Well Newton's Second Law, it is going to accelerate in the

  • direction of the field. But on our planet it does not do that. On our planet it still

  • has the same force, it will accelerate, but eventually the earth is going to stop it from

  • going to the center of the earth. It is going to exert a normal force in the opposite direction.

  • And so that force on the scale is what we would measure as its weight. There is a spring

  • in there that is measuring that force. And so it is giving us a value. And we would measure

  • that in newtons if we were in a physics lab. And so objects that are in free fall are different

  • from objects that are just sitting on the planet's surface. And so imagine we take a

  • large object, 250 kilograms. So could you figure out the weight of that object? You

  • simply multiply it times 9.8 newtons per kilogram. And you would get a force of 2500 newtons.

  • So let's say we let it go from the top of a building, this massive object. They are

  • going to accelerate towards the planet. And so in physics the gravitational field strength

  • which is in newtons per kilogram is going to be equal to, numerically equal to the acceleration

  • due to gravity, which we call that little g. And so it is not a coincidence that these

  • two are exactly the same. But the units are different. We are measuring acceleration remember

  • as a change in velocity over time. And gravitational field strength is the force of that field

  • based on the amount of material in that object. And so did you learn to calculate the gravitational

  • force? It is simple. You simply multiple m times g. And I hope that was helpful.

Hi. It's Mr. Andersen and this AP Physics essentials video 24. It is on the gravitational

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重力 (Gravitational Force)

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    林裕庭 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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