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  • On December 19th, 2018, a revolution started to spread throughout Sudan.


  • After decades of living under President Omar Bashir's brutal military regime, civilians pushed back.

    オマル・バシル大統領のもとで何十年も生活してきた。残忍な軍事政権... 民衆の背中を押した。

  • They wanted a democracy in their country.


  • A few months later, this man and this man helped take down Bashir in a coup and then promised protesters the future they had demanded.

    その数ヶ月後、この人とこの人がクーデターでバシルを倒すのに貢献した...。 そして、抗議者たちが要求していた未来を約束した。

  • Four years later the same two men are now at war with each other, tearing Sudan apart, killing hundreds of civilians.

    4年後同じ2人が今、戦争をしている...。 スーダンを引き裂き、何百人もの市民を殺害しています。

  • So how did Sudan go from this to this in such a short time?


  • And how did these two powerful men go from partners to enemies?


  • - Clashes in Sudan. - ...a deadly coup...

    [重複】 -スーダンで衝突が発生。-...致命的なクーデター...

  • ... support forces...


  • Sudan has a long history of coups.


  • Leader after leader has been brought down by military officers.


  • The country's official military now known as the Sudanese Armed Forces or SAF has held tremendous power in the country for nearly a century.

    国の正式な軍事現在ではスーダン武装勢力(SAF)として知られています。 は、1世紀近くもこの国で絶大な権力を誇ってきた。

  • And they started using that power soon after Sudan gained independence from Anglo Egyptian rule.


  • "Sudanese flag now replacing the flags of those two nations."


  • The first successful military coup happened in 1958.


  • Abdullah Kalil, a retired military officer and sitting prime minister, overthrew his own civilian government to put Sudan under military rule.

    アブドゥラ・カリル氏(退役軍人で、現職の総理大臣... ないかくをくつがえすスーダンを軍政下に置くために

  • About a decade later, Colonel Gaafar Nimeiry carried out another successful coup, bringing down a short lived democracy.

    その約10年後、ジャアファル・ニメイリ大佐がクーデターを成功させた 短命の民主主義を崩壊させる。

  • Then in 1985, Nimeiry was out.


  • This military officer took him down and later installed a new democratic government.


  • Four years later, Colonel Omar Bashir took down this government and appointed himself as the new head of state.


  • But Bashir ended up being different from those that came before him.


  • Given the pattern of military takeovers, Bashir knew he may suffer the same fate as previous leaders.


  • So he used a strategy called coup-proofing, where he'd surround himself with protectors but would keep each one in check so they couldn't overthrow him.


  • It started with the SAF.


  • Throughout his regime, Bashir bolstered the army and maintained a strong relationship with them.


  • He relied on them heavily to crack down on an ongoing civil war in southern Sudan, where SAF and allied militias brutalized civilians on his command.

    彼は彼らを重用し、取り締まりを行った。南スーダンで続く内戦について... SAFと同盟の民兵がいるところ彼の命令で民間人を残虐に扱った。

  • Then, with the army busy in the south, another war started taking shape in the West.


  • Darfur was in crisis.


  • People here were historically neglected.


  • Lack of medical supplies and necessary goods and little representation in Sudan's government left them feeling agitated for years.

    医療品や必要な物資が不足していると、スーダン政府への代表権がほとんどない は、何年も動揺したままでした。

  • So in 2003, while large portions of the army were tied up in the south, rebel groups attacked troops in this city in Darfur.

    だから2003年に軍隊の大部分が南部に拘束されている間に。 ダルフールのこの街では、反政府勢力が部隊を攻撃した。

  • And Bashir in recognizing that this rebellion was taking place instead of relying on the Sudan Armed Forces or SAF, the conventional military,

    そして、バシルはこの反乱が起こっていることを認識した。スーダン軍に頼らず やSAFなど、従来の軍事

  • he instead decided to rely and arm local Arab militias in the region that were known as the Janjaweed.

    腕によりをかけたジーユー ジャンジャウィードと呼ばれるものです。

  • This group was brutal and focused on wiping out Darfuri rebels and civilians at Bashir's direction.

    このグループは残酷だったと、ダルフリの反乱軍や民間人の一掃に力を注いだ バシルの指示で

  • Satellite imagery shows that the Janjaweed is likely responsible for destroying over 3000 villages.


  • SAF troops in Darfur were responsible for destruction there as well.


  • Both groups are accused of mass killing, rape and the targeted displacement of civilians.


  • Together, they killed thousands of Darfuris.


  • The events in Darfur showed Bashir how to keep his power.


  • And he turned to the Janjaweed in search of another protector.


  • Among the Janjaweed militias, there were a couple of men Bashir trusted and tried to bring into the central government.

    ジャンジャウィード民兵のうちバシルが信頼する男が何人かいた。 と中央政府に取り込もうとした。

  • But there is one particular Janjaweed leader that Bashir trusted the most.


  • Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo or Hemeti.


  • Bashir called him "my protection."


  • A particular play on the Arabic word Hemmati which is "my protection" versus Hemeti, which is his nickname.


  • By 2011, the long and gruesome civil war here ended with South Sudan gaining independence, leaving Bashir in a weak position.

    2011年、この地での長く陰惨な内戦は終結した。南スーダンが独立したことで...。 バシルを弱体化させる

  • And soon after, Sudan's economy tanked.


  • Many of the oil resources that sustain the country were based in the south, which was no longer under Bashir's control.

    国土を支える石油資源の多くはは、南部に拠点を置いていました。 は、もはやバシルの支配下にはなかった。

  • To strengthen his power, Bashir gave Hemeti and the Janjaweed official status as a paramilitary force called the Rapid Support Forces, or RSF, in 2013.

    自分の力を強化するためにバシルはヘメティとジャンジャウィードに正式な地位を与えた。 を、2013年に準軍事組織「Rapid Support Forces」(RSF)として発足させました。

  • At first, the group was placed under the NISS, Sudan's intelligence agency, also one of Bashir's protectors, even though they were supporting the SAF in the ongoing war in Darfur.

    当初は、NISSの下に置かれスーダンの情報機関であり、バシルの庇護者の一人でもある。 SAFをサポートしていたにもかかわらずダルフールでの戦争が続く中

  • Then in 2017, he passed a law placing Hemeti directly under his command, making it clear that the RSF's main purpose was to protect him.

    そして2017年、ある法律を成立させた。ヘメティを直属の部下にすることで RSFの主な目的は彼を保護することであることを明らかにした。

  • To maintain the RSF's loyalty, Bashir gave Hemeti financial autonomy and allowed him to take control of some of Darfur's gold mines,


  • smuggle weapons and minerals into places like Chad and Libya, and send troops into war torn regions in exchange for money.

    ダルフールの金鉱のいくつかを支配するために...チャドやリビアなどに武器や鉱物を密輸する...。 と、お金と引き換えに紛争地域に軍隊を送り込む。

  • At the same time, Bashir continued to let the SAF have a hand in major industries, like weapon production and telecommunications.

    同時に、バシルは次のように続けた。SAFに主要産業の手を握らせるために...。 武器製造や電気通信のような

  • While Bashir was busy making these two forces richer, civilians continue to struggle.


  • Protests broke out in 2018 in the middle of a really bad economic crisis.


  • That's when Bashir faced his biggest challenge, putting his protection scheme to the test.


  • The ultimate trigger was the government's budget, which allocated about 60% to 70% to the security sector, which included Bashir's protectors, while Sudanese people struggled for basic needs.

    最終的な引き金は、政府の予算だった...。は、約60〜70%を安全保障分野に割り当てました...。 その中にはバシルの庇護者も含まれていた。 スーダンの人々が基本的な生活必需品のために苦労している間に。

  • This led to the biggest revolution in Sudan's history.


  • Spontaneous protests broke out in different parts of the country.


  • And then they shifted to Khartoum in the capital city.


  • Bashir refused to leave office.


  • The RSF, SAF, and other security sectors backed him, and cracked down on the protesters who ultimately wanted democracy.

    RSFやSAFなどの治安部門が彼をバックアップした...。とデモ隊を取り締まりました 最終的に民主主義を望んだ人

  • But protesters didn't back down for months, and it became clear to the RSF and SAF that Bashir's leadership wouldn't be as useful to them anymore.

    しかし、デモ隊は何カ月も引き下がらず...。と、RSFとSAFの間で明らかになりました・・・。 バシルの指導力がもう役に立たないということで

  • So on April 11th, 2019, they made a move that surprised civilians and Bashir.


  • SAF commanders colluded with the RSF's Hemeti and removed Bashir from power.


  • Protesters celebrated Bashir's removal, but they didn't trust the man who made it happen.


  • A day after the coup, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, a formal regional commander in Darfur took charge of the south.

    クーデターの翌日、アブデル・ファタハ・アル・バーハンは...。ダルフールの正式な地域司令官 は、南部を担当した。

  • Together, the two men gained control of Sudan.


  • People saw them as complicit in the violence in Darfur all those years ago, where they worked together.


  • One as a member of the Sudan Armed Forces; one as a militia leader on the same side against large proportions of the population of Darfur.


  • And soon, the two men turned on protesters.


  • When pro-democracy protests kept intensifying in Khartoum, Hemeti and his forces started cracking down.


  • On June 3rd, 2019, the RSF killed over 100 people at a sit-in protest.


  • And other massacres continued throughout the country.


  • After this, these countries were forced to step in to help put Sudan on a democratic path.

    この後...しかたなく、これらの国々が介入した スーダンを民主化の道へ導くために。

  • The United States, with its Arab allies, the United Kingdom, Ethiopia, and the African Union, pressured Sudan's military and protesters to accept a power-sharing agreement.

    アメリカは、アラブの同盟国とともに英国、エチオピア、アフリカ連合...。 スーダンの軍とデモ隊に圧力をかけました...は、権力分立協定を受け入れることになります。

  • In this new deal, representatives from both the military and protesters would be part of a transitional council.

    この新しい契約では軍とデモ隊の代表が... は、暫定的な評議会の一部となるだろう。

  • In this plan, the military would have control for 21 months and civilians for 18.


  • That meant the military would eventually have to hand over power to civilians who run the country.


  • The problem was, despite warnings from protesters, these two military men were put in charge of the council with Burhan as chair and Hemeti as vice chair.

    問題は、デモ参加者の警告にもかかわらず...。この2人の軍人は、評議会を担当することになりました。 を、Burhanが議長、Hemetiが副議長に任命しました。

  • At first, the council acted in line with the agreement and installed a new prime minister, Abdallah Hamdok.


  • But after multiple military interventions by these leaders, like a staged coup in October 2021, Hamdok resigned in January 2022.

    しかし、その指導者たちが何度も軍事介入した結果...。2021年10月のクーデターを演出するような...。 ハムドクは2022年1月に辞任しています。

  • That made Burhan, the de facto leader of Sudan and Hemeti as his number two again.


  • But Hemeti was never quite comfortable with playing second fiddle.


  • Especially because he had amassed this fortune and had positioned himself to play the role of statesman almost better than Burhan himself.

    特に、彼はこの財産を蓄積していたためと、政治家としての役割を果たすことを位置づけていたのです...。 ブルハンの方がよっぽどいい。

  • As Burhan developed personal alliances with leaders in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia over the years,


  • Hemeti did the same using his riches from the gold mines to build relationships with powerful individuals in those countries as well.

    ヘメティも金鉱で得た富をもとに同じことをした...。権力者との関係を構築するために を、それらの国々でも行っています。

  • After another year of protests, the US, UAE, Saudi Arabia, and the UK pressured Burhan, Hemeti, and protesters to sign another deal.

    今年も抗議の声が上がりました...。米国、UAE、サウジアラビア、英国 は、ブルハン、ヘメティ、そして抗議者たちに圧力をかけて、別の契約を結ばせた。

  • On December 5th, 2020, Burhan, Hemeti and political parties signed it, promising a new civilian-led transitional government by April 2023.

    2020年12月5日にBurhan、Hemeti、政党が署名した...。 は、2023年4月までに文民主導の新たな暫定政権を発足させることを約束した。

  • But these two men disagreed on a key part of the deal.


  • The RSF would need to become part of Burhan's army, which would limit Hemeti's power.


  • Burhan wanted that to happen in two years, but Hemeti proposed 10.


  • That disagreement caused a big rift between Burhan and Hemeti, which led to the current conflict between the two men.


  • They've placed hundreds of thousands of armed men across the country.


  • Burhan and his army have an air force that's responsible for many of the casualties.


  • And Hemeti's finances allow him to arm more and more men on the ground.


  • Hundreds of civilians have been killed already, and thousands have fled Sudan.


  • Cease fires have routinely been broken.


  • And talks between the warring parties have gone nowhere.


  • What was once a hopeful revolution has been interrupted by these two men.


  • No matter who wins this war, protesters are left feeling betrayed by the country's de facto leaders and also by the international community that claimed to support their hopes for democracy.

    この戦争にどちらが勝とうとも抗議する人たちは、裏切られたような気持ちになる...。 同国の事実上の指導者たちによるまた、国際社会から 謳い文句は 民主主義のために

On December 19th, 2018, a revolution started to spread throughout Sudan.


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スーダンの革命を狂わせた2人の男たち (The two men who derailed Sudan’s revolution)

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    Minjane に公開 2023 年 05 月 30 日