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  • Hello, lovely people, terrific Tuesday to you.


  • I'm Coy Wire; thank you for spending part of your day with us right here on CNN10, the best 10 minutes in news.

    私はコイ・ワイヤーです。ここ CNN10、「ベスト10ミニッツ」で一日の大半を私たちと過ごしていただきありがとうございます。

  • Now, we have to start today with some sad and concerning news out of North Korea.


  • Experts say that North Korea's chronic food shortages are growing and so is the number of citizens potentially dying due to starvation.


  • Trade data, satellite images, and assessments from the United Nations and South Korea suggest that the nation is grappling with their lowest food supply since the famine of the 1990s,


  • a famine that caused mass starvation, killing hundreds of thousands of people.


  • Experts say the current food shortage is likely due to complications from the COVID pandemic.

    専門家によると、現在の食糧不足は、COVID パンデミックの合併症によるものである可能性が高いとのことです。

  • Three years of closed borders and strict isolation, as well as floods and storms, which offset planting.


  • North Korea is a self-isolated and very secretive country, so it's difficult to assess or prove what's really going on there.


  • Experts say that equal distribution of any available food there is unlikely because the elite and military are prioritized.


  • Now, despite the food shortage, which few experts deny, North Korea continues to spend money on missile tests instead of food and refuses aid from neighboring countries.


  • Here's CNN's Paula Hancocks with more.

    CNN のポーラ・ハンコックスがお伝えします。

  • Concerns about North Korea's food crisis are growing.


  • Reports from multiple sources say deaths due to starvation are likely.


  • Probably its worst point since the famine in the 1990s, which killed 3 to 5% of the population.


  • Attention is being paid at the very top.


  • North Korea leader Kim Jong-un held a Workers' Party meeting this week, calling for a fundamental change in farming and state economic plans.


  • But many say it is his regimeits chronic mismanagement and isolationthat has caused this crisis.


  • We're really talking about three years of no import or fertilizer.


  • There's been no imports of tools or components to fix the outdated machinery that they have


  • An extensive shutdown of borders due to the COVID pandemic meant almost no food or aid was getting into the countryonly in recent months as minimal trade restarted with China.

    COVID の流行で国境が広範囲に閉鎖されたため、食料も援助もほとんど入らず、最近になって中国との貿易がわずかに再開されただけでした。

  • South Korean officials said last month they believe deaths from starvation are occurring in certain areas, though provided no evidence.


  • Its Rural Development Agency estimates that the North's food production dropped almost 4% last year from the year before.


  • Food has dipped below the amount needed to satisfy the minimum human needs.


  • So, as it stands, by that measure, even if you distributed food perfectly equally, which is totally inconceivable, you would have hunger related deaths.


  • Speaking to South Korea's Foreign Minister last week, he said Pyongyang has to decide to help its own people.


  • The only way that North Korea can get out of this trouble is to come back to the dialogue table and accept our humanitarian offer to the North and make a better choice for the future.


  • The regime's focus remains on its nuclear and missile program.


  • Seoul's Ministry of Unification says if Pyongyang had used the money spent on launching missiles last year for food, it could've bought one million tons, more than enough to cover the annual food shortage.


  • But that focus is unlikely to shift.


  • As the time goes on, the capacity for North Koreans to endure hardship becomes harder and harder.


  • Their... their resilience, you know, runs off and their, you know, their resources also decrease.


  • 10-second Trivia.


  • In biology, a complete set of DNA in an organism is called what?


  • Genome, chromosome, genetic code, or interphase.


  • Genome is the term for the entire set of DNA instructions for a cell or organism.


  • Thanks to recent breakthroughs in genetics, scientists say they will soon be able to bring back prehistoric creatures that have been extinct for thousands of years.


  • We could see a woolly mammoth roaming the earth in as little as 4 years, according to researchers.


  • Now, woolly mammoths were the huge, hairy-looking, elephant-type beasts marching through the ice age snow about 10,000 years ago.


  • One companyColossal Biosciencessays it plans to reincarnate the mammoth using gene editing technology in a process called de-extinction.


  • And there are other extinct creatures scientists could bring back as well, like the Tasmanian tiger or the dodo bird.


  • But, should they?


  • As you can imagine, there are plenty of ethical questions about these recent genetic advancements.


  • Here's CNN's Rachel Crane with more.

    CNN のレイチェル・クレインがお伝えします。

  • Your body contains 37.2 trillion cells.


  • And within each is a copy of a code consisting of more than 20,000 genes and billions of strands of DNA.


  • This code is your genome, and it determines everything that makes you you.


  • What if you could modify that code, bring back extinct species, eliminate hereditary diseases?


  • That is precisely what molecular engineers and geneticists around the world are working on.


  • Genes are what we get, and we're stuck with them, and the environment is the only thing we can change and there's kind of a limit on how much we could do.


  • But now, if we can change our genes, too, we're really in much closer to total control of our biology and physiology.


  • George Church is one of many using a revolutionary gene editing technique called CRISPR/Cas9, which allows you to modify DNA sequences.


  • CRISPR is a way that you can design and target a particular part of your genome and change it to something else, or you can delete a gene.

    CRISPR は、ゲノムの特定の部分をデザインしてターゲットにし、それを別のものに変えたり、遺伝子を削除したりすることができる方法です。

  • You can make all sorts of edits very precisely.


  • CRISPR is kind of like having the find-delete-replace function for DNA.

    CRISPR は、DNA に検索ー削除ー置換の機能を持たせたようなものです。

  • No one actually invented the process; it happens naturally.


  • Scientists discovered that bacteria alter their DNA to defend against viruses, essentially storing part of a virus so they can identify, target, and attack the virus if it comes back.

    科学者たちは、細菌がウイルスから身を守るために DNA を変化させ、ウイルスの一部を保存しておくことで、ウイルスが再来したときにウイルスを特定し、標的にして攻撃できることを発見しました。

  • Researchers realized the tools bacteria used to do this were CAST proteins, nature's genetic scissors.

    研究者たちは、バクテリアがそのために使う道具が、自然の遺伝子のハサミである CAST タンパク質であることに気付きました。

  • Geneticists are now using these proteins to make their own targeted changes to DNA.


  • Scientists have been messing with genomes for years, so, what's the big deal with CRISPR?

    科学者は何年も前からゲノムをいじってきたのに、CRISPR の何がすごいんだろう?

  • This is dramatically different, I mean, it's... it's like 10,000 times easier.


  • This can be used in agriculture, where you can change any plant or animal; (it) can be used to eliminate invasive species.


  • What's most exciting about CRISPR is our ability to alter longstanding epidemics like malaria and HIV.

    CRISPR の最もエキサイティングな点は、マラリアや HIV のような長年の疫病を変えることができることです。

  • And that could potentially save millions of lives.


  • So, here, we grow human cells, elephant cells; we could do cloning procedures.


  • It turns out that you can make pretty big things by tweaking small strands of DNA.

    DNA の小さな鎖をいじると、かなり大きなものができることがわかりました。

  • By making changes to the DNA of the Asian elephant, researchers in Church's lab are working to bring the woolly mammoth back to life.

    チャーチの研究室では、アジアゾウの DNA に変化を与えることで、ウーリーマンモスを復活させることに取り組んでいます。

  • The difference between a woolly mammoth and Asian elephant is actually quite subtle.


  • When am I gonna see a woolly mammoth in Jurassic Park?


  • Right, so, an actual full woolly mammoth, I think, is still a few years down the road.


  • We can just change one gene, and then the next gene, and then, soon, we have thousands of genes that are changed.


  • The elephant cell will have the exact same DNA sequence as the woolly mammoth cell.

    象の細胞は、ウーリーマンモスの細胞と全く同じ DNA 配列を持つことになります。

  • Paint this picture of what the future looks like as a result of CRISPR in your eyes.

    CRISPR の結果、どのような未来が待っているのか、この絵をあなたの目に描いてみてください。

  • I suppose the wildest description would be that you have some 150-year-old people that look like they're 20-year-old riding on a mammoth; is that wild enough?


  • But CRISPR is not without controversy.

    しかし、CRISPR には賛否両論があるのも事実です。

  • If you can make a mammoth, consider what you can do with a person's DNA.

    マンモスを作ることができるなら、人の DNA で何ができるかを考えてみてください。

  • For the first time, scientists in China used CRISPR to edit the genomes of human embryos.

    中国の科学者たちは、初めて CRISPR を使ってヒトの胚のゲノムを編集しました。

  • People fear CRISPR could lead to designer babies; how do we prevent that from happening?

    CRISPR がデザイナーズベビーの実現につながると危惧されていますが、それを防ぐにはどうしたらいいのでしょうか?

  • We shouldn't be playing, we should be engineering, and I think that's what we are doing.


  • Where do you think the moral and ethical boundary is?


  • Safety; I think safety is number one.


  • Just like any new technology or new drug, we should try to make it as safe as possible.


  • If we don't do anything, then people are definitely gonna die of malaria next year.


  • A lot of people are gonna die of HIV if we don't do something.

    このままでは、多くの人が HIV で死んでしまいます。

  • If we focus on why it's useful, then that changes the conversation to, you know, what's the alternative?


  • And for today's story getting a 10 out of 10, ice cream lovers that'll not be denied their treats.


  • This Dairy Queen in Moorhead, Minnesota opens every year on March 1st, no matter what the weather is.


  • And if you've ever been to Minnesota in March, it is not warm and toasty.


  • These faithful fans lining up on opening day all bundled up, ready to dominate some dairy queen blizzards in all sorts of snow.


  • I scream, you scream; we all scream for ice cream, no matter what the weather.


  • My favorite flavor is Oreowell, at least for now.


  • What's yours?


  • I wanna give a special shout-out to Springdale Middle School in Springdale, Arkansasrise up.


  • Also, for all the students out there, get you some teacher time this Tuesday.


  • Go on and dap up your teacher; give them a handshake or high five.


  • Let them know you appreciate them.


  • See you tomorrow, everyone; I'm Coy Wire, and we are CNN10.

    皆さん、また明日。私はコイ・ワイヤーで、わたしたちは CNN10 です。

Hello, lovely people, terrific Tuesday to you.


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