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  • During the 1600s, an expansive autonomous settlement called Palmares

  • reached its height in northeastern Brazil.

  • It was founded and led by people escaping from slavery, also called maroons.

  • In fact, it was one of the world's largest maroon communities,

  • its population reaching beyond 10,000.

  • And its citizens were at constant war with colonial forces.

  • The records we have about Palmares mainly come from biased

  • Dutch and Portuguese sources,

  • but historians have managed to piece much of its story together.

  • During the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, which began in the 1500s,

  • nearly half of all enslaved African people were sent

  • to Portugal's American colony: Brazil.

  • Some escaped and sought shelter in Brazil's interior regions,

  • where they formed settlements called mocambos or quilombos.

  • Fugitives from slavery probably arrived in the northeast in the late 1500s.

  • By the 1660s, their camps had consolidated

  • into a powerful confederation known today as the Quilombo of Palmares.

  • It consisted of a central capital linking dozens of villages,

  • which specialized in particular agricultural goods

  • or served as military training grounds.

  • Citizens of Palmares, or Palmaristas, were governed by a king

  • and defended by an organized military.

  • African people and Brazilian-born Black and Indigenous people

  • all came seeking refuge.

  • They collectively fished, hunted, raised livestock,

  • planted orchards, and grew crops like cassava, corn, and sugarcane.

  • They also made use of the abundant palm trees for which Palmares was named,

  • turning palm products into butter, wine, and light.

  • Palmaristas crafted palm husks into pipes and leaves into mats and baskets.

  • They traded some of these goods with Portuguese settlers

  • for products like gunpowder and salt.

  • In turn, settlers avoided Palmares' raids

  • during which they'd seize weapons and take captives.

  • The Portuguese were concerned with other invading imperialists,

  • but regarded Indigenous uprisings and Palmares

  • as their internal threats.

  • Palmares endangered the very institution of slavery

  • the foundation of Brazil's economy.

  • During the 1670s, the Portuguese escalated their attacks.

  • By this time, Ganga-Zumba was Palmares' leader.

  • He ruled from the Macaco, which functioned as the capital.

  • His allies and family members governed the other villages

  • with women playing crucial roles in operation and defense.

  • As they fought the Portuguese, Palmaristas used the landscape to their advantage.

  • Camouflaged and built in high places, their mocambos offered superior lookouts.

  • They constructed hidden ditches lined with sharp stakes

  • that swallowed unsuspecting soldiers and false roads that led to ambushes.

  • They launched counterattacks under the cover of night

  • and were constantly abandoning and building settlements

  • to elude the Portuguese.

  • In 1678, after years of failed attacks,

  • the Portuguese offered to negotiate a peace treaty with Ganga-Zumba.

  • The terms they agreed upon recognized Palmares' independence

  • and the freedom of anyone born there.

  • However, the treaty demanded that Palmares pledge loyalty to the crown

  • and return all past and future fugitives from slavery.

  • Many Palmaristas dissented,

  • among them ZumbiGanga-Zumba's nephew— a rising leader himself.

  • Before long, Ganga-Zumba was killed,

  • likely by a group affiliated with his nephew.

  • As Palmares' new leader, Zumbi rejected the treaty

  • and resumed resistance for another 15 years.

  • But in February of 1694,

  • the Portuguese captured the capital after a devastating siege.

  • Zumbi escaped, but they eventually found and ambushed him.

  • And on November 20th, 1695, Portuguese forces killed Zumbi.

  • His death was not the end of Palmares, but it was a crushing blow.

  • After years of warfare, there were far fewer rebels in the area.

  • Those who remained rallied around new leaders and maintained a presence,

  • however small, through the 1760s.

  • Though, Palmares is no more thousands of other quilombos persist to this day.

  • November 20th, the day of Zumbi's death, is celebrated across Brazil

  • as the Day of Black Consciousness.

  • But Zumbi was just one of many Palmaristas.

  • We only know some of their names,

  • but their fight for freedom echoes centuries later.

During the 1600s, an expansive autonomous settlement called Palmares


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The city built by runaways - Marc Adam Hertzman & Flavio dos Santos Gomes

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    shuting1215 に公開 2022 年 12 月 18 日