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  • In the last lesson we looked at Dr. Paul Richer's system of measuring human proportions based

  • on the height of the head. In this lesson we'll take a look at a different approach,

  • based on the same proportions as Richer's, but uses a different unit for measuring. At

  • first glance it seems like head height is the logical unit to measure from. It's the

  • most commonly used method and the one used by most canons throughout history. If Leonardo

  • DaVinci used it, it must be the best way, right? [show daVinci's Vitruvian man] Well,

  • that's up to each artist to decide, but although it's not as popular, Robert Beverly Hale's

  • Cranial method definitely gives The Head Height method a run for its money. Since no method

  • is perfect, you choose which one works best for you.

  • Hale's method uses the size of the cranium as the unit. This method is used today by

  • artist like Glenn Vilppu, Marshall Vandruff and Michael Mentler.

  • The advantage of this method is that many important skeletal landmarks correspond to

  • this unit, unlike with the head method that aligns with nipples and navel as landmarks,

  • which vary a lot more than skeletal landmarks. Also the size of the cranium can be measured

  • from any head angle and doesn't change. However the length of the head changes as the jaw

  • open and closes, or as the head is foreshortened. Hale's method seems to be more consistent

  • and more reliable when drawing a person in a pose.

  • I asked Marshall Vandruff why he prefers it and this it what he said.

  • I don't like the head-length system. It's great for straight-on studies like orthos,

  • but it breaks down when you foreshorten anything, especially when you foreshorten the head.

  • Unless you have a full-view of the head, you have no unit to begin.

  • I'm big on Robert Beverly Hale's head-width system for a number of reasons, one is that

  • you can find that five-eyed-ball when the head is in any position - it makes a sphere

  • at back of the cranium, and a sphere never foreshortens.

  • This is a useful system - a consistent measurement that echoes through the body and isn't dependent

  • on seeing the height of the head. If you can draw a ball, you can look at a head and deduce

  • it, then bounce the ball all through the figure.

  • Ok, let's go over the details of this method.

  • The unit itself can be measured from the back view by taking the width or height of the

  • cranium. From the front you can use the width or the height down to the bottom of the nose.

  • But, keep in mind that the bottom of the nose will only align with the cranium if the head

  • isn't facing up or down. So, the width is more reliable from the front. From the side

  • you should use the height of the cranium, since the width is too long. An additional

  • quarter of a unit is added on to the front. This cranial unit can be measured with the

  • width or height from any angle even when the head is foreshortened because the shape of

  • a ball isn't affected by foreshortening. A ball is a ball from any angle.

  • So, we'll take this cranial size and think of it as a box unit. We'll use this box to

  • find 3dimensiomal placement of the landmarks on the skeleton.

  • One unit down brings you to the pit of the neck. For the torso let's use a width of two

  • units. The sternum is one unit long not including the xiphoid process. One more down to the

  • corners of the ribcage at the 10th ribs. So, notice how the width the rib cage doesn't

  • quite reach the edges of this 2x2 box. And the top plane of the rib cage, indicated by

  • the oval of the first rib, faces towards the front as you can see from this side view.

  • So, the back of the ribcage is up higher than this 2x2 box.

  • The length of each clavicle is 1 unit. Keep in mind that these units are slightly separated

  • because of the gap at the pit of the neck.

  • In the back, the width and height of the scapulas fit into the box. In a relaxed position the

  • distance between the scapulas near the bottom is also 1 unit.

  • One more unit down takes us to the corners of the pelvis, known as the ASIS. And one

  • more down just past the bottom of the pelvis. On a male, the distance between the greater

  • trochanters is two units. The width of the pelvis is equal to the ribcage. The 10 rib

  • and ASIS points also line up. On a female the width of the Pelvis is 2 units and it

  • no longer aligns with the rib cage. The distance between the greater trochanters is wider too.

  • On the pelvis there are also some convenient alignments using half units. The top of the

  • iliac crest is at the halfway mark of this box and the top of the pubic bone and greater

  • trochanters is at the halfway mark here. So, when drawing the front of the pelvis, look

  • for these 5 points and remember their distances.

  • From the side, the pit of the neck and the ribcage align with the edges. Then the sternum

  • comes out forward and the cartilage continues to come forward past the sternum about half

  • a unit. The depth of the pelvis is conveniently 1 unit.

  • We've already found the placement of the greater trochanters relative to the pelvis. 3 units

  • down ends at the connection of the bottom of the femur and top of the tibia. Another

  • 3 units to the heels.

  • The foot from the side is 1.5 units long and half a unit tall.

  • Finally the arms. The length of the humerus is 2 units. And from the elbow to the knuckles

  • of the hand is another 2 units. The hand itself is a bit longer than 1 unit.

  • That's it! Since this system uses a 3-dimensional box for measuring, one of its advantages is

  • that it's manageable when something is foreshortened, as long as you are capable of drawing a box

  • in perspective. If not, then you might need to go back to the structure lesson and practice

  • that again.

  • So, for example with this foreshortened leg.. We know from the top of the greater trochanter

  • to the bottom of the femur is 3 boxes long. So, if we can draw these 3 boxes in perspective,

  • we can then fit the leg into those boxes.

  • Ok, so we've explored 3 different systems of human proportions. Like I said, these work

  • really well in neutral poses and as a general guide when you're drawing from your imagination.

  • Sometimes it can come in handy when drawing from a model. But, when you're drawing from

  • a model or photo reference, measuring is much more practical. So, in the next lesson I'll

  • show you how to lay-in your drawing using various measuring techniques.

  • "You are an artist now, you must make your own decisions. Do you prefer the proportions

  • of Rubens or Michelangelo? Or would you like to leave the ball of the abdomen out altogether,

  • like Henry Moore?" Robert Beverly Hale

  • I've created a downloadable diagram that you can print out for your reference. Find the

  • link in the description below. And I have posters available for purchase at proko.com/store.

  • I hope you've enjoyed exploring these two systems for measuring human proportions. The

  • premium section has a third system of proportions based on Loomis's idealized 8 Heads tall figure.

  • These proportions are widely used in fine art and illustration. If you want to see that

  • video and other premium videos from the figure drawing fundamentals series, visit proko.com/figure.

  • If you like this video, share the wealth, tell your friends. Post it on your favorite

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  • to be updated about new videos. Buh Bye!

In the last lesson we looked at Dr. Paul Richer's system of measuring human proportions based

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人間のフィギュアのプロポーション - 頭蓋単位 - ロバート・ビバリー・ヘイル (Human Figure Proportions - Cranial Units - Robert Beverly Hale)

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    vulvul に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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