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  • Hi this is David from MinuteEarth.

  • A long time ago, a population of apes lived in the middle of the jungle, eating the plentiful

  • plants on the ground and occasionally searching out rarer fruits in the trees.

  • But as the once-shallow Congo river in the middle of their range started to get wider

  • and deeper, the ape population was split in two: though the North and South of the river

  • contained the exact same kind of apes, they were now fatefully confined to separate environments.

  • From fossil evidence, we know those environments were ever-so-slightly different from each

  • other; it just so happened that the one South of the river had lots more plants on the ground

  • and the one North of the river had big mean gorillas.

  • And most researchers think that these two small differences caused the groups of apes to eventually split

  • into two species: one that was violent and one that was super-snuggly.

  • Why did they end up so different?

  • Well, if you were an ape north of the river, there would be lots fewer ground plants to

  • eat and big mean gorillas already eating them, so you'd be more likely to search out rarer

  • fruit up in the trees instead.

  • If you were more aggressive than other Northern apes, you'd be more likely to get more fruit

  • when you did find it.

  • And because you got more fruit, you'd not only be more likely to survive but you could

  • use that fruit as a way to attract a potential mate.

  • On the other hand, if you were an amiable ape living in the North, you'd likely get

  • less fruit and fewer opportunities to mate.

  • But South of the river, there would likely be plenty of ground plants to go around - and

  • no gorillas - so being aggressive wouldn't get you more food.

  • In fact, in a place where there was no reason to fight over food, being a jerk could make

  • you an outcast - an easier target for predators and much less likely to find a mate.

  • But if you were an amiable ape in the lush South, you'd likely make more friends, and

  • thus be less likely to be eaten by a predator and more likely to get to reproduce.

  • After thousands of generations, these slight changes in the advantageous-ness of certain

  • traits led to entirely new species: North of the river - gorilla country - was stocked

  • with aggressive apes likely to attack any outsiders they came across - these are chimpanzees.

  • And the lush South was packed with bohemian simians that took friendliness to such an

  • extreme that they were more likely to make love than war - these are bonobos.

  • Now, we aren't sure exactly how much the gorillas mattered versus the vegetation.

  • And there may have been other factors that contributed to the split.

  • But when the Congo River got big, it turned the apes into two species: one that solves

  • conflicts with fighting, and another that solves them by cuddling.

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  • That's

Hi this is David from MinuteEarth.


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How This River Made Chimps Violent

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    chen に公開 2022 年 07 月 17 日