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  • Today we are answering an age-old very  scientific and important question:  

    今回はとても科学的で重要な 昔からの問題に回答しよう

  • What if the moon crashes into earth? It’s more  interesting and weird than you probably think.  


  • Let's start with the basics: Why isn't the  Moon on its way to crash into us already?

    これはあなたが思うより面白く 奇妙な内容だ

  • We know that earth’s gravity pulls everything  towards it, including the Moon, but somehow,  


  • it stays up, as if suspended by some opposite  force. But there is no other force countering  


  • gravity - instead, the trick to staying up  is a ‘sidewaysmotion that we call an orbit.

    地球の重力は 月を含めた全てを引き付けているが

  • You see orbits every day: when you throw  a ball it makes a tiny little orbit.  


  • The only difference between that ball’s  orbit and the moon’s is that the ball  


  • eventually hits the groundBasically, the reason is speed.


  • If you could throw your ball fast enough, it  would bend around the world and come back to you.  

    代わりに「軌道」と呼ばれる横の動きによって 高度を維持しているのだ

  • If there was no air slowing it down, it could  orbit forever. And this is what the moon does:

    軌道は日常的に目にするもので ボールを投げればごく小さな軌道を描く

  • Falling sideways around earth, very fast, with no  air slowing it down. Orbiting earth every 27 days,  

    ボールと月の唯一の違いは ボールが最終的に地面にぶつかるということだ

  • at 3600 km/h. So for the moon to just stop  in its orbit and plummet to the earth would  


  • break more laws of physics than we have time  to explain. So how do we crash it into earth?

    十分な速度で投球できれば 世界を一周して戻ってくるだろう

  • In a nutshell, to change an object’s  orbit, you need to change its speed,  

    空気摩擦での減速がなければ 永遠に軌道を描き続る

  • which changes where gravity takes it. But  even small changes require enormous forces,  


  • which is why all the large objects in  the solar system are so stable nowadays.

    地球の周りを横向きに落下し とても高速で、空気での減速がない

  • According to science, the moon is big and very  massive. Even igniting billions of rocket engines  

    時速3600kmで27日ごとに 地球を周回している

  • all over its surface would barely move the Moon. It looks like nothing short of magic will make  

    だから月を軌道上で停止させ 地球に落とすなら

  • the moon fall. So well use a magic  spell that slows down the moon so much  

    物理法則を破りすぎて 説明しきれなくなる

  • that it changes its orbit and spirals towards  earth. To get the most from the experience,  


  • the moon will take exactly one year before  it hits earth. Ready? 3. 2. 1. *Magic

    要するに、物体の軌道を変えるには その速度を変え、重力に捉えさせればいい

  • Month 1

    しかし、少しの変化にも大きな力が必要だからこそ 太陽系の大きな天体たちが安定しているのだ

  • For the first few days, nothing really  changes. The moon gets a tiny bit brighter  

    科学的にみて 月の質量は大きい

  • and scientists get confused, but the rest  of us don’t notice anything different.

    月面で数十億のロケットエンジンを点火しても 月はほとんど動かない

  • The only noticeable real effect of  the moon on the earth are the tides.  


  • Tides exist because while earth pulls on the  moon, the moon’s gravity pulls back on the earth.  

    だから月を減速させる魔法で軌道を変え 螺旋を描くように地球に落ちてもらおう

  • Since the strength of gravity gets weaker  with distance, different parts of the earth  

    知見を最大限に引き出すため 地球への衝突までちょうど一年とする

  • feel a slightly different pull. Which  causes the earth, especially the oceans,  

    準備はいい? 3...2...1...

  • to bulge when the moon is above them, and  contract a little on the sides when it’s  


  • not. As earth rotates every day underneath  the moon, the moon’s influence fluctuates,  


  • causing the water-level of the oceans to rise  and fall by about half a meter twice a day.


  • But with the moon drawing ever closer, high tide  gets higher every day. At first barely noticeable,  

    月が若干明るくなり 科学者は混乱するが

  • within a month the moon has covered half the  distance to the earth and ocean tides have  


  • grown to 4 meters. Everyday high tide  comes and waves flood coastal cities.  

    実際に生じる顕著な影響は 潮汐だけだ

  • And there is no end in sight. With the moon  drawing ever closer, tides rise ever higher,  

    潮汐は、地球と月が 引力で引き合うことで発生する

  • inundating another city and more  inhabited land with salty water every day.

    重力は離れるほど弱まるため 場所によって引力は微妙に異なる

  • Month 2

    だから地球、特に海は月が真上にあれば膨らみ 月が無いときは少し縮むのだ

  • By the end of month 2 the moon has covered  two-thirds of the distance to earth,  

    地球は月の下で毎日自転しているため 月の影響は変動し

  • and global infrastructure is crumbling as  tides rise above ten metersdisplacing up  

    海の水位が1日2回 約0.5m上下する

  • to a billion people who happen  to live near the coastlines.

    だが月が近づくにつれ 満潮は日に日に高くなっていく

  • As ports become inoperable shipping grinds  to a halt. Not only will it slow down the  

    最初は気づけない程度だったが 1ヶ月で月との距離が半分になり潮位は4mにまで上昇した

  • delivery of Kurzgesagt products but  also less exciting things like food.  

    毎日、高潮による波が 沿岸の都市を洪水にする

  • Global communications fall into disarray – 95% of  the internet is carried by ocean-crossing cables,  


  • and while these largely don’t mind the watertheir terminals on land do. Living inland  

    月の接近に伴い 潮位はますます高くなり

  • doesn’t guarantee safety either, tidal  bores cause rivers to flow backwards,  

    他の都市や居住地にまで 毎日しょっぱい水が押し寄せる

  • carrying saltwater to contaminate  surface and groundwater supplies.


  • Gas shortages follow, as oil refineries near  the coast are abandoned. Countries are left  

    2ヶ月目の終わりには 月と地球の距離は1/3になり

  • with the supplies they had on their shelves  and strict rationing will begin. In the cities,  

    潮位は10メートルを超えるため 世界のインフラは崩壊する

  • chaos reigns during the  scavenging hours of low tide,  

    たまたま海岸線近くに住んでいた 約10億人が追い出される

  • while survivors take refuge in  highrises when the water returns.

    港が使えなくなり 徐々に海運が機能しなくなる

  • Month 3

    なんとKurzgesagtグッズの配送が遅れてしまう 食糧のような面白味に欠ける物もだ

  • Three months in and the moon is  close enough to disrupt communication  


  • and navigation satellites. While it is normally  far too distant for its gravity to cause any  

    インターネットの95%は海底ケーブルを介していて 大部分は海水の影響を受けないが

  • major problems for our satellites, the closer  it gets the more warped their orbits become.  


  • As their fuel for orbital corrections runs  out, satellites careen out of control.


  • Month 4 - 5 On earth, the tides are  

    潮の干満によって河川が逆流し 海水が地表か地下の水源を汚染するのだ

  • rapidly growing to about 30 meters and will be  reaching 100 m in height in a few short weeks.  


  • At low tide, the ocean recedes hundreds of  kilometers, exposing the continental shelf  

    各国はその時点での備蓄だけが残り 厳しい配給制が始まる

  • like vast deserts, while at high tide walls of  water drown agriculture, houses and skyscrapers.

    都市部の干潮時は ゴミ漁りの人々で混沌とし

  • And now, almost five months in, the  apocalypse has finished its warm-up act.

    水位が戻るたび 高層ビルに避難していく

  • Since the oceans are on average only 3 kilometers  deep, the tides have reached their maximum. Up  


  • until now, the water in the oceans could flowabsorbing most of the moon's gravitational  

    3ヶ月経ち、通信衛星や航法衛星を混乱させるほど 月が接近している

  • squeezing, but now the earth itself is really  feeling the squeeze of the ever approaching moon.  

    通常なら、月の引力は大した影響を与えないが 近づくほどに衛星の軌道は歪んでいく

  • These aren’t so much tides ofwater’, but  tides ofrock.’ The squeezing of the planet,  

    軌道修正用の燃料がなくなると 人工衛星は制御不能に陥る

  • combined with the weight of quintillions of tons  of water sloshing on and off the tectonic plates,  


  • creates enormous stresses below and begins to  cause earthquakes of increasing magnitude and  

    地球では潮の満ち引きが 約30mにまで急成長し

  • intensity. It’s impossible to say how serious  these earthquakes might be or where they occur,  


  • but like a child jumping on their bed  until it breaks, no good can come of it.


  • Strong tidal forces lead to volcanism  on other planets and moons. On earth,  


  • squeezing the planet disrupts the  magma reservoirs inside the crust,  

    満潮時には水の壁が 農業や住宅、高層ビルを溺れさせる

  • triggering sizable, climate-altering eruptions in  Chile, New Zealand, Yellowstone, and elsewhere.

    そして約5ヶ月が経過すると 終末的な災害の前座は終了だ

  • Meanwhile, watching patiently above is the moonStill no bigger in the sky than a small cloud.  


  • Within 75,000 km of earth, it is bright enough  to illuminate the night sky like twilight.


  • Month 6 - 7

    これまで、海水が流れることで 月の引力を受け止めていたが

  • After half a year, the moon is entering the space  once occupied by geosynchronous satellites where  

    今では迫りくる月の引力に 地球自体が圧搾される

  • it orbits earth every 24 hours. It appears  to float at one spot in the sky, unmoving,  

    これは「水」ではなく 「岩」の満ち引きだ

  • cycling through a full set of phases every  day, but only visible to half the planet.  

    地球が圧搾され、数百京トンもの水が 地殻プレートを何度も打ち付け

  • With the moonstationaryabove the  earth, the tides seem to freeze in  


  • placehalf the world flooded, half with  its water seemingly returned to the sea,  

    地震を起こし始め その強さや規模を増していく

  • as if Earth is holding its  breath to prepare for the worst.

    地震の発生場所や規模は 予測不可能だが

  • As the moon sinks further, you might wonder if  its gravity would overpower Earth’s, pulling you 

    ベッドが壊れるまで飛び跳ねる子どもと同様 ロクな結果を招かない

  • up and ending your misery? Fortunately not.  

    強い潮汐力は惑星や月で 火山現象を誘発する

  • The earth’s surface gravity is about  6 times stronger than the moon’s,  

    圧搾された地球でも 地殻内のマグマ溜まりが破壊され

  • so even if the moon were hovering right on top  of you, you would still stay on the ground.

    チリ、ニュージーランド、イエローストーンなどで 気候を変えるほどの大規模な噴火を引き起こす

  • On the moon things are different though: the near  side of the moon is more strongly affected by  


  • earth’s gravity, so during the next few months, it  starts to stretch forward towards the earth, into  


  • something of an egg, triggering deep moonquakes  as the lunar rock flexes and changes shape. Though  

    地球まで75000kmを切り、月の明るさは 夜空を黄昏時のように照らせるほどだ

  • barely noticeable now, thissquishwill grow  to hundreds of kilometers in a matter of months.


  • Month 8 - 11

    半年を経て 月は静止衛星が占めていた領域に入り

  • At this point the apocalypse has arrived and  we can summarize the months before the crash  


  • aseverybody left has a really bad time”.  The tides sweeping over the Earth slow down  


  • and then reverse their direction because the  moon now orbits earth faster than it rotates.


  • The planet will experience an abundance of  earthquakes and volcanism. Massive amounts of  


  • volcanic aerosols rise high into the stratosphereshiny enough to reflect sunlight back into space.  

    地球上で月が「静止」するため 潮の満ち引きは停止して見える

  • What little light gets through is rust-red and  is periodically diminished by daily eclipses.  

    世界の半分は水に浸かり もう半分は水が引いたようで

  • The result is a rapid global cooling, with  acid rains and summer snows killing even  

    最悪の事態を前に 地球が息を潜めてるみたいだ

  • the hardiest plants.The clock runs out  on civilization. Billions have perished  


  • while an egg-shaped moon is still drawing  closer. Let’s get ready for the grand finale.

    月の引力が地球の重力を超え 吸引されて終了、と想像するかも

  • Month 12


  • Finally, at the end of the year,, the moon  has reached the Roche limit. That’s the point  


  • where Earth’s gravitational pull on the Moon is  stronger than the Moon’s own gravity. Things on  

    たとえ月が真上でホバリングしていても あなたは地上に留まるだろう

  • the lunar surface start falling towards Earth  and by the time it crosses 10,000 km the entire  


  • moon disintegrates into rubble, smearing itself  into a massive ring system around the earth.


  • Fortunately, the moon’s disintegration  means the misery on Earth has ended.  

    ここから数カ月で地球に向かって伸び始め 月は卵のような形になる

  • No moon means the general apocalyptic nature  of things comes to a halt. The oceans recede,  

    岩の形状変化に伴い 震源の深い月震が誘発される

  • flowing off the land one last time.

    この時点では目立たないが、この変形は 数ヶ月のうちに数百kmにまで拡大する見込みだ

  • Any survivors are treated to a view  of tremendous arches spanning the sky,  


  • glimmering in the sunlight, illuminating  the night sky more brilliantly than any  


  • full moon ever could, while meteor  showers of moondust fill the sky.


  • It’s hard to say what happens nextbut the tranquility may be short-lived.  


  • If too much moondust rains down, friction  heats the atmospherepossibly boiling the  

    地球を覆う高潮の動きが減速し 逆方向に動きだす

  • oceans. If not, the enormous  shadows cast by the rings,  

    地球の自転よりも 月の公転の方が早くなったからだ

  • combined with all the volcanic and meteoric  aerosols, block even more sunlight,  


  • and a period of runaway cooling could begin  that freezes much of earth’s surface solid.


  • In any case, at some point people will  emerge againfrom submarines or bunkers  


  • or mountaintops. They will not have a great time  before rebuilding civilization and their success  

    赤錆色の光がわずかに差し込むが 毎日の日食で周期的に減衰する

  • is not guaranteedbut at least they will  try to do so with beautiful rings in the sky.


  • So how do you calculate that sort of thing? Well,  

    酸性雨と夏の雪は 最もタフな植物すら枯らすだろう

  • you just need a bit of insanity and some  maths. If you need to brush on the latter:  


  • Our friends from Brilliant are the perfect coaches  to turn your curiosity into practical skills.

    卵型の月が接近を続けている間に 何十億人も死んでしまった

  • Brilliant is a problem-solving website  and app that makes science accessible 


  • with a hands-on approach. More than 60 interactive  courses likeThe joy of problem solvingor  


  • Scientific thinkinggive you the tools to crack  problems in math, science and computer science in  

    1年が経ち、ついに月は ロッシュ限界に到達した

  • a way that feels more like playing a game than  doing homework. Lessons will surprise you with  

    ここで、地球が月に及ぼす引力が 月自身の重力よりも強くなる

  • storytelling, code-writing tasks and interactive  challengesbasically using whatever keeps you  


  • interested and entertained. All the content is  interactive: instead of just reading and listening  

    地球まで1万kmを切ると 月全体が瓦礫と化し

  • to explanations, you drag and drop, manipulate  shapes and diagrams, make selections and answer  


  • questions. This way you learn something almost  without you noticing it. And tiny step by step  

    幸運にも、月の崩壊は 地球の惨状の終わりを意味する

  • youll build up your long-term understanding  of science and get closer to your STEM goals.

    月が無いということは 諸々の終末的な現象の停止を意味する

  • To start looking at the world of  science from a different perspective,  

    海は陸上から後退して流れ去り その状態で安定する

  • go to SlashNutshell and sign  up for free. And there’s an extra perk for  

    生存者は、空に広がる巨大なアーチを 拝むことができる

  • kurzgesagt viewers: the first 200 people to use  the link get 20% off their annual membership,  

    太陽光にきらめき どんな満月よりも鮮やかに夜空を照らし

  • which unlocks all of Brilliant’s courses  in math, science, and computer science.


  • At kurzgesagt we love to create things that seem  

    次に展開は予想困難だが これは束の間の静寂かもしれない

  • impossible at firstBrilliant can  help you acquire the skills to do that.

    月屑の落下が過剰なら、摩擦で大気が熱せられ 海が沸騰するかもしれない

  • This year we will release 3 very special limited  edition pins. The first one is this very shiny  

    あるいは、月屑の輪が落とす巨大な影と 火山や隕石のエアロゾルの合わせ技で

  • Moon Crash Pin Set. Pre-order is available  for only 72h, so you can order it now and then  


  • never again. Be sure to watch out for pin number  2 and 3 to complete your 12,022 collection.

    地表の大部分が凍り付くほどの 冷却が始まるかもしれない

Today we are answering an age-old very  scientific and important question:  

今回はとても科学的で重要な 昔からの問題に回答しよう


ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

A1 初級 日本語 地球 引力 重力 軌道 ヶ月 brilliant

What Happens if the Moon Crashes into Earth?

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    吳鑫陽 に公開 2022 年 03 月 22 日