Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • After the California Gold Rush of 1848,

  • white settlers streamed west to strike it rich.

  • In addition to precious metals, they unearthed another treasure:

  • dinosaur bones.

  • Two wealthy scientists in particular

  • Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope

  • competed to uncover these prehistoric monsters.

  • Marsh and Cope were first to describe iconic creatures

  • like Brontosaurus, Triceratops, and Stegosaurus.

  • But they also showcased the destructive whirlwind of profiteering and ambition

  • that fueled American science during the late 1800s.

  • Their rivalry, one of the most notorious scientific feuds in history,

  • became known as the Bone Wars.

  • Marsh was ill-tempered and had a knack for debunking falsehoods.

  • One woman said that getting to know him waslike running against a pitchfork.”

  • Cope, on the other hand, was charismatic and given to bold theorizing.

  • But he was also sarcastic and temperamental.

  • By his own admission, he wasn't

  • constructed for getting along comfortably with the general run of people.”

  • When Marsh and Cope first met in 1864, they were friendly,

  • and each named a new species in the other's honor.

  • But their relationship soon soured.

  • In 1868, Cope took Marsh to a quarry near his home in New Jersey

  • where one of the most complete dinosaur skeletons to date

  • had recently been discovered.

  • Sensing an opportunity, Marsh paid the mine operators

  • to send him the most interesting new finds.

  • Outraged, Cope accused Marsh of bribery.

  • That same year, Cope showed Marsh his reconstruction of a new marine reptile

  • called Elasmosaurus.

  • Marsh immediately noticed that something was wrong:

  • Cope had mistaken the creature's long neck for its tail.

  • When Cope's mentor sided with Marsh, Cope was mortified.

  • He tried to buy and destroy every copy of the article containing his blunder,

  • but to no avail.

  • Their mutual resentment blossomed.

  • After the transcontinental railroad was completed the following year,

  • Cope and Marsh began scouring the American West for fossils.

  • They found riches the likes of which neither had dreamed.

  • Relying on the help of Native American guides,

  • Marsh made some especially significant discoveries,

  • like ancient birds with teeth that are still celebrated

  • as a missing link between dinosaurs and modern birds.

  • Cope made important discoveries, too,

  • but Marsh successfully invalidated many of them,

  • showing them to be redundant with other known species.

  • Enraged, Cope tried to secure priority for new findings

  • by announcing them via telegram.

  • He even purchased a respected journal

  • so future publications could be rushed into print.

  • But Marsh used his personal fortune to gain the upper hand,

  • hiring a small army of fossil hunters to out-compete his rival.

  • In 1878, Marsh bought an especially promising quarry in Como Bluff, Wyoming,

  • from two frontier collectors.

  • It yielded tons of fossils,

  • including the near-complete skeleton of a gigantic dinosaur

  • that Marsh named Brontosaurus.

  • Over the next 10 years, his men shipped him more than 480 boxes

  • of dinosaur bones from Como alone.

  • Marsh named dozens of new species.

  • But his assistants could be ruthless in their quest

  • to further Marsh's scientific ambitions.

  • They sometimes destroyed fossils just to prevent them

  • from falling into Cope's hands.

  • Desperate to catch up with Marsh,

  • Cope invested his dwindling fortune into silver mining.

  • The gamble failed, and he was left nearly destitute.

  • While Cope contemplated selling his precious collection,

  • Marsh was named lead paleontologist for the US Geological Survey.

  • This well-funded branch of the government often sponsored Westward expeditions,

  • giving Marsh even more resources to vanquish his rival.

  • The Bone Wars spilled into public view when Cope had a tabloid newspaper

  • publish an article accusing Marsh of plagiarism, fraud, and corruption.

  • Marsh fired back and the two further tarnished each other's reputations.

  • Neither ever relented.

  • When Cope died, he donated his skull to science,

  • hoping to prove that his brain was larger than that of his enemy.

  • Marsh never accepted the challenge.

  • Although Marsh named more species than Cope,

  • both men greatly expanded our understanding of evolution.

  • But their egotistical one-upmanship reminds us that,

  • in spite of its ideals,

  • science is a personal enterprise conducted by individual

  • and at times deeply flawedhuman beings.

After the California Gold Rush of 1848,

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B2 中上級

The most notorious scientific feud in history - Lukas Rieppel

  • 30 3
    OolongCha に公開 2021 年 07 月 14 日
動画の中の単語