字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント There was a lot of hype in 2017 around Zume. What if there was a better way to make and deliver pizza to you? Turns out there. Zume is revolutionizing delivery model. All pizzerias out there, you're in trouble. At the time Zume was a pizza company that used robots to automate the pizza creation process and utilized large oven carrying trucks to bake the pies as they traveled to customers. The idea was a hit and earned Zume a $375 million investment from SoftBank. So why are we talking about pizza made by robots in a video about compostable packaging? That was our question too. One of the problems that we encountered in pizza was our beautiful pizza with no stabilizers in it in a traditional box, declined in quality from the time you cooked it to the time it was delivered to the point where we didn't think it was good enough. So we designed a new pizza box. At the beginning of 2020 Zume laid off half of its workforce; 360 employees. This is another stumble for SoftBank's Vision Fund, which invested $375 million into Zume, bestowing that unicorn status; $1 billion valuation. But the company kept going. Now Zume is dedicated to producing compostable packaging that is durable and backyard compostable, breaking down in a matter of 90 days. Zume is breaking into the $274.2 billion sustainable packaging market, which is expected to grow to $413.8 billion by 2027. But the industry does face challenges. I wish I could say it was just the cost, you know, and cost is gonna come down or it's just that we need one thing but it's really, I think a variety of factors. As the oceans fill up with plastic waste, and as companies make pledges to switch to greener packaging, it could be great timing for Zume. So let's take a look at some roadblocks in the compostable packaging industry and what can be done to overcome them. Let's talk about the lifecycle of a package first using a takeout container as an example. Takeout containers can be made of many different materials which all have their pros and cons, like plastic, metal, styrofoam, cardboard, and a compostable material like molded fiber. Some plastics and metals can be recycled, but they have to be perfectly clean in order to be made into another product. They can also be down cycled, which is where they're used to create something that cannot be recycled again, like a park bench. But recycling has failed in the US. In 2018, less than 9% of plastic waste was properly recycled in the US. And it got worse in 2019 when China stopped importing American trash. So most of what you think may be getting recycled is actually getting sent to landfills or making its way into rivers and oceans. The UN says that by 2050, we'll have more plastic than fish in the ocean. Plastic's become so prevalent that every person on the planet eats a credit cards with a plastic a week. Plastic recycling has actually been considered by some to be a ploy by oil companies to make plastic production seem more environmentally friendly than it is. And even sending food scraps to the dump can be harmful. When you're actually introducing those organics in a landfill, you create a lot of methane. And as you know, methane is a very important greenhouse gas emission. So then you want to reduce that amount of organics that you send to the landfill. But the US loves plastic. The country generated more than 14.5 million tons of plastic in 2018. It's not easy to get away from that. Plastic's an amazing material, it's miraculous, and the convenience of plastic has powered many of the modern conveniences that we enjoy as consumers around the world. But unfortunately, the things that make plastic great come with catastrophic consequences. Aluminum containers are a bit easier to recycle but still only saw about a 35% recycle rate in 2018. Cardboard is recyclable and compostable, but only if it's clean and doesn't have some sort of coating on it. Virgin cardboard can also contribute to the deforestation of endangered habitats. Styrofoam, or polystyrene is technically recyclable, but not in a way that is economically feasible or environmentally effective. Many cities and states including New York City, Maine, Vermont, Maryland, and a long list of cities in California have completely banned the use of polystyrene and the trend is growing. Compostable materials seem like a solution to these recycling issues but come with their own set of confusing marketing tactics and end of life difficulties. For instance, the word biodegradable which is used to describe certain materials like plastic made from corn has been scrutinized. That necessarily does not mean that a bio acronym at the beginning will mean that the polymer is from a based resources or is biodegradable and if it's biodegradable that doesn't mean that it's compostable either. The word biodegradable on its own for a marketing term is seen as potentially pretty misleading. So several states have passed laws actually forbidding the term biodegradable in marketing language when it comes to single use items. So states like California, Maryland, and Washington, Minnesota for bags specifically, Some materials require composting in an industrial facility like certain cutlery and coffee cup lids, which means you can't just throw it in your backyard and hope it will break down. It has to be sent to a facility that monitors the chemical and temperature levels of a large compost pile. The materials are also sifted to make sure everything has broken down properly. And if you think you're doing the environment to favor buying these industrial facility compostable products, and still throwing them away in the trash, you're only partly correct. Landfills are usually too compressed to allow oxygen and micro-organisms to break materials down. Even for things like food or paper, which are usually pretty easy to break down. Unlike with recycling, where you have different plastic types, you have different shapes, and that can help determine the recyclability, and each community has different requirements based on what their recycling facility can sort, there's no common one common definition of what is recyclable. With composability, it's different. We have these international standards saying this is what is compostable regardless of what plastic type you're using, regardless of whether there's paper in there or not. According to one report, only about 27% of the United States population has access to some kind of composting program that accepts either food waste only, or food waste and some form of compostable packaging. So it's not a ubiquitous solution yet. The real difficulty here at Zume is finding solutions to replace all of those arrows. Let's get rid of those arrows so that you don't have the confusion at the consumer level. You know, can I or can't tie and throw your hands up and I'm just going to throw it in the trash and let it go to landfill. So it's going to be make it simpler, easier. I know I can just take it, compost it and 90 days later, I can use it to fertilize my garden. Zume developed packaging that is backyard compostable, and it really makes a difference. Backyard compostable packaging can break down without the use of industrial monitoring. They use the microorganisms in the soil or water to break down packaging. For people living in areas without composting services, this gives consumers the option to discard their waste in a local compost pile, or even in their backyard compost piles. I can tell you that we've tested our products with independent labs in all of the known waste streams and we have all the certifications that give you the results that you'd be looking for. Recently, compostable products have been on the rise. Companies like Full Cycle in the US, Astu in India and Biofase in Mexico have been springing up left and right. Unilever and PepsiCo among others have goals to design 100% of packaging to be reusable, recyclable, compostable, or biodegradable by 2025. That's partly a technical definition, so making it technically recyclable, or compostable, but you also have to be able to get it recycled or composted at scale. And you know, that's what we're all working on right now is how do we make that happen both technically recyclable or compostable, and at scale. And Zume is trying to make the compostable transition easier for brands, brokers and distributors by creating packaging out of materials that are local to the companies that need them. For some of their packaging, the materials they use come directly from nearby farms who can sell their agricultural waste to Zume. One of the big things I think we can do here is the revamping this supply chain. So let's build a pulp mill, next to the source of the agricultural waste so it doesn't get burned or it doesn't get taken to a landfill, turn it into premium molded fiber packaging that then is composted, so it's a place to grow the next crop. It's a closed loop supply chain. And, you know, something I think we've heard a lot about over the past year is the supply chain. The company has products available in 21 countries including takeout containers, cosmetics packaging, and their robotic technology when a company wants to produce packaging themselves. We work with some of the largest industrial companies in the world, and they build factories based on our technology. At the same time we work with some of the biggest brands in the world, and what's All of their product problems, we help give them a road beyond plastic. When we have these fully qualified products and these fully qualified factories, we connect the two of them together. And we give brands a path beyond plastic at scale with great economics for the brands, and great economics for the factory partners. The sustainable packaging industry is a $274.2 billion a year business. Of course, the packaging industry as a whole is about $900 billion. So there's still a lot of work to be done. There are some constraints when it comes to compostable packaging like higher cost. 100 plastic straws can cost as low as $1.53 when bought in bulk, compared to paper straws, which can cost $1.67 for 100, when bought in bulk. That's an increase of 9%. These plastic clamshell containers for burgers and sandwiches can cost 13 cents each when purchased in bulk. Their natural fiber counterparts cost 19 cents each when bought in bulk, an increase of 46%. Remember, packaging is a commodity and it's always a low cost product. So in general, for food, or for this kind of situation, your margin is very small that you can actually not have a large amount of room there to have a course in the packaging system. Zume says it's robots are the reason it can keep costs down. Previously, machines could either make very low quality things quickly, some machines could make high quality things very slowly, but they were so expensive that they would be outrageous for a consumer market. What our technology does that so revolutionary is it can make very high quality parts very fast. And then there's the question of performance. Compostable packaging companies have come up with many ways to make their products as durable as environmentally damaging alternatives. But it's not always easy. We're using technology to advance the state of the art in molded fiber production. So we can take many, many millions of tons of agricultural waste and turn it into not plastic. And we can do that without compromising on performance or on price and we can do it with speed that is absolutely category leading. One thing Zume doesn't have control over though, is the difficulty that comes with waste management, including the lack of composting programs mentioned before, along with the general confusion of whether something is compostable or not. The problem is that the waste management system is at the state level. So we have 50 states with different types of goals. So we should have tried to get at least an aggregation of a state or if the government can actually pass some type of regulation on whatever we have goals to move the whole country forward. Without a fully circular economy, meaning packaging is created, used and turned back into materials that can be used to create more, our packaging obsession will continue to cause problems. There's tremendous demand for these solutions in the market and with consumers. So now that the solutions exist, and the demand is there, now we're getting the scale.