字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Thanks to Squarespace for making this video possible, more on that after this video. In just a few short years it would go from being the pride of Airlines to a plane that some thought twice about flying. [Television] The cargo door was found to have a basic fault in design. Before you got on the DC-10, were you worried about it? After the Chicago disaster though it's the engine mountings that have come under the closest scrutiny. After a series of accidents, McDonnell Douglas is newest jet was engulfed in an extraordinary wave of controversy. And while the DC-10 ultimately went on to be safe reliable even pioneering, the company that built it never fully recovered from its missteps. the DC-10's story begins in the early 1970s, at a pivotal time, when air travel was undergoing a revolution. Long-distance flying, once reserved for the wealthy, opened up to the middle class. And some of this had to do with aircraft design. A 1960s era airliner like a long-range Boeing 707 had a single aisle, accommodating at most six seats across. But a new generation of planes introduced for the 1970s added another aisle allowing for many more seats. These new generation of airliners were called wide-bodies and their increased capacity and new efficient fan jet engines helped make air travel more affordable. Leading the way was Boeing's revolutionary 747. Introduced in 1970, the world's first wide-body was doubled the size of earlier airliners, and the jumbo jet quickly became an icon of the jet age. But rival manufacturers raced to unveil wide-bodies of their own. In 1971 McDonnell Douglas introduced the DC-10. With a striking trijet configuration, it promised improved fuel efficiency and lower maintenance costs. The medium to long range airliner could be configured to carry anywhere from 255 to 380 passengers. And with larger windows and a quiet spacious cabin, the DC-10 set a new benchmark for passenger comfort. This was an entirely new kind of airliner and McDonnell Douglas anticipated huge demand. But so did rival Lockheed, a company also introducing a new trijet wide-body aimed at largely the same market as the DC-10. The two companies were building pretty much the same plane, but the L-1011 was Lockheed's first ever jet airliner. McDonnell Douglas on the other hand, had been building them since the late 1950s, so they knew a thing or two about slinging jets. The DC-10's wide-body design incorporated many existing narrow-body technologies from earlier DC-8 and DC-9s. Focusing on simplicity and reliability, McDonnell Douglas took a technologically cautious in an era of rapid technological change. And this helped accelerate the DC-10s development. On the other hand the L-1011s more ambitious and technically advanced design threw Lockheed's program into a tailspin of cost overruns and delays. The DC-10 beat the L-1011 to the market, and it was less expensive. So McDonnell Douglas was soon out selling its rival. [Television] the DC-10 is probably the quietest jetliner you've ever flown in. The United DC-10 Friendship, a plane designed to please everybody. From a wide-body Continental Airlines DC-10... but the DC-10 would quickly lose its shine. In just a few short years the new jet would go from being the pride of Airlines, to a plane that some people thought twice about flying. A series of accidents during the 1970s, some of which were attributed to the plane's design, engulfed the DC-10 in an extraordinary wave of controversy. McDonnell Douglas found itself facing accusations that it had rushed the planes development, leading to inadequate, even negligent design decisions. In 1979 an American Airlines DC-10 was involved in America's worst air disaster, but it's the events after the crash that really damaged the plane's reputation. In an unprecedented move, the Federal Aviation Administration suspended the DC-10 Type Certificate. For five weeks U.S. registered DC-10s sat grounded on tarmacs, and foreign DC-10s were banned from flying into U.S. airspace. The investigation focused on a suspected flaw with the airplane's engine mountings, but the sudden grounding caused chaos at airports. [Television] How are you going to get there now? I have no idea, I just picked up my luggage downstairs in the mess, I don't know where I'm going to go form here. Before you got on the DC-10, were you worried about it? Well, in Los Angeles where it was every news report had a big write-up of it--about the incident of the DC-10s so it makes it is very much on edge. This delay is due to DC-10 operating restrictions. And passengers are requested to await further calls concerning this flight. A spokesman for the FAA and the United States declared there was a distinct possibility that the model might never fly again operators and passengers around the world are wondering whether the sight of a climbing DC-10 will be as common in the future, or whether it will ever be seen again. Damage to the DC-10s reputation was immediate and severe. Airlines stopped featuring the plane in their advertisements, some quietly removed DC-10s from their mainline routes and new orders for McDonnell Douglas wide-body dried up. But the 1979 American Airlines crash was ultimately attributed to improper maintenance procedures and not directly to a design flaw in the DC-10. But that did little to vindicate the plane's reputation in the eyes of the public. Because memories were still fresh from an even deadlier incident five years earlier. In 1974 a Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashed outside of Paris when an improperly locked cargo door blew open. The explosive depressurization triggered a catastrophic chain of events which ultimately severed critical hydraulic lines needed to control the jet. This was one of the world's worst air disasters, and it might have been avoidable because two years earlier the same catastrophic chain of events almost brought down an American Airlines DC-10 just outside of Detroit. Only the pilot's skill and sheer luck that some hydraulic lines still remained intact prevented disaster. But remarkably McDonnell Douglas knew about issues with the cargo door even before the plane entered service the company had witnessed the cargo door blow up during its own ground testing. Not surprisingly, McDonnell Douglas was criticized for how it handled the issue, which involved negotiating their way out of an FAA issued air worthiness directive. Instead McDonnell Douglas was allowed to handle the cargo door flaw by issuing a Service Bulletin. But it was ultimately ignored by some airlines. After the Turkish Airlines disaster McDonnell Douglas was hit with multiple lawsuits from families of the victims, including up to that point the largest lawsuit in history. And when it became clear they'd likely be held liable, the cases were settled. But while the Turkish Airlines disaster was a PR nightmare for McDonnell Douglas, it's the 1979 Chicago disaster that really seemed to crystallize the DC-10s reputation. The ensuing media frenzy, much of it driven by speculation, was truly unprecedented. But there were other more pointed criticisms, like accusations that the DC-10 s design had been compromised in a deliberate rush to beat the L-1011 to the market, resulting in an overall less sophisticated plane. But what is certain is that it would take years for the DC-10 s reputation to recover. And by the 1980s,McDonnell Douglas was facing even bigger challenges. The market had really only been big enough for one trijet and that ensured that neither would become a true commercial success Airlines now wanted more efficient twin-engine wide-bodies from Airbus and Boeing. McDonnell Douglas was running out of cash to innovate, but that didn't stop the company from trying. [Television] With a new MD-11, McDonnell Douglas once again sets a standard for commercial transport excellence and technological innovation. McDonnell Douglas's efforts to sell an improved version of its trijet in an era when twin-engine jets were clearly the future signaled the beginning of the end for the once legendary aircraft builder. But despite its troubled start the DC-10 would fly for over 40 years, serving with some of the world's largest airlines. In spite of tragic early accidents, including an infamous later incident in Sioux City, statistically the DC-10 safety record would go on to be comparable to other wide-bodies of the era, and much safer than earlier generations of airliners. Noted for their strength, reliability, and ease of maintenance, these iconic jets were workhorses for reputable airlines, and in no small part the DC-10 helped open up air travel to the masses, forever changing the modern airline industry. Ladies and gentlemen at this time we'd like to bring your attention to Squarespace, the best all-in-one platform for building websites. To avoid any turbulence in launching your website, we'd advise you to always choose Squarespace. Doing so ensures you get access to the most intuitive and easy to use user interfaces, a huge selection of beautiful templates, and award-winning 24/7 support. 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