字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント This was Levittown, Pennsylvania, shortly after World War II. In a suburb that explicitly promised a white-only neighborhood. And it wasn't some outlier. It was the prototypical suburb, built by the father of suburbia — Bill Levitt — who created several suburbs around the US, all named Levittown. But one reason Levitt wanted a white-only community was because the US government was subsidizing it — and that's what they wanted. They said they didn't want "racially inharmonious groups" lowering property values. That's why Levitt didn't just sell cookie-cutter houses. He sold a meticulously crafted, affordable, utopian lifestyle. So as the courts integrated public spaces, like schools, more and more white people fled to these suburbs. And these patterns are still the defining characteristic of America's racial geography. But we now spend most of our time at work. It gets a lot more complicated. "More than a million persons each year have pulled up stakes in the city and turned commuter…" Shortly after the first Levittown broke ground in 1947 in Long Island, New York, about 80 percent of men still commuted the hour to Manhattan. And while neighborhoods were getting deeply segregated, these workplaces were getting more diverse. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned employment discrimination. More companies explicitly said they were "equal opportunity employers." And segregation within our workplaces declined. This meant the workplace was a crucial environment for us to interact with people of other races. Except that's not exactly how it turned out. A few months ago, researchers at Cornell and Penn State shared a dataset with me — and when I mapped it, it kind of blew my mind. This is a map of where people work in modern-day Chicago. The taller an area, the more people there are. But now, let's color in each neighborhood by the percentage of white people. You can see the city centers are pretty diverse. But, now, here's what happens when they go home. What's even more astounding is what happens when we map people of color. Here's where black people work in Chicago. Again, they're concentrated in diverse city centers. But when black workers go home, they go to very segregated neighborhoods, clustered in the poorer areas. And we can see the same patterns in DC. Detroit. Philadelphia. Pretty much everywhere in the US. These maps shows just how stubborn residential segregation is. But they also show what looks like a glimmer of hope for integration: cities are remarkably diverse during the work day. This got researchers interested in looking closer at what's at work. Let's look at how segregation has changed in recent year. From 2000 to 2010, residential segregation between black and white people got slightly better. For the most part, segregation just mostly plateaued for all racial groups. But when researchers looked at how segregation changed during the day, when we're at work, they found that segregation increased slightly across all racial groups. When we zoom in some more to the company level, we can see a bit more of what's actually happening. Researchers at Stanford and Harvard found, within a company, segregation levels have gone down very little. In other words, we're exposed to about as much diversity now... as we were a generation ago. But there are a lot more people of color now than there were in 1980. So what's going on? Well, they aren't being more represented at these white-majority companies, which would look like this. Rather, they are getting opportunities at companies that are mostly non-white, over here. So this means that, when we look at this from a company level, segregation has actually gotten worse than a generation ago. Of course, some places are pretty diverse. So researchers looked at what kinds of places actually have less segregation during the day. But they found that, if a place is diverse during the daytime, it's likely not because people of all races are working alongside each other. Rather, it's likely because most of the higher status workers, like managers, are white. and the lower-status workers, like janitors, are people of color. American policies engineered our segregated homes. But work — where we spend most of our time? Many thought that could be a space where we form meaningful relationships with people of other racial backgrounds. That hasn't quite happened. And we can see it in the most personal parts of our lives. In 2014, the Public Religion Research Institute asked Americans to list the people with whom they "discussed important matters" in the past six months. In other words, our friends. Most Hispanic people had friends of other races. About one in three black people did, too. But 75 percent of white people only had white friends. In short, we may be exposed to diverse spaces, but we still live very segregated lives. "The whole trouble with this integration business is that in the end it probably will end up with mixing, socially."