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  • In an effort to create a more pleasant, healthier and sustainable built environment,

  • architects, engineers and developers are creating increasingly greener structures

  • and doing it in a more literal way than ever before.

  • This is what happens when trees meet buildings.

  • Buildings with trees are actually nothing new. The mythical Hanging Gardens of Babylon

  • are often imagined as a stepped palace of terraces containing numerous trees, shrubs

  • and exotic flowers.

  • Although no such building was found during excavations in Mesopotamia, and its existence

  • has been subject to much debate, artists have kept this imagery alive in their paintings

  • throughout the centuries.

  • The current revival of green architecture began in the 1970s, when the energy crisis,

  • coupled with growing awareness of humankind's impact on the environment, propelled architects

  • and engineers to think more carefully about sustainable development.

  • Although there are many different ways to approach sustainable building design,

  • an increasing number of architects and engineers began to incorporate green roofs and other

  • energy saving measures into their projects.

  • A prominent example of this is the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters in Ipswich in

  • the United Kingdom, designed by Sir Norman Foster and completed in 1975.

  • The building features a reflective double-leaf facade and a grass-covered roof, which could

  • be used as breakout space for the firm's employees.

  • Other approaches advocate integrating trees and plants within buildings, often to soften

  • the psychological impact of living in modern cities.

  • One of the most idiosyncratic proponents of this approach

  • was Austrian artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser, who designed an apartment building

  • and a number of hotels throughout the 1980s and 90s incorporating mature trees

  • in Vienna and elsewhere across his native country.

  • Since then, research has demonstrated that green space can have a substantial physical

  • and psychological impact on our urban environments.

  • Studies have shown that even a small park can reduce local surface temperatures

  • by as much as 7 degrees Celsius, while urban trees planted along streets

  • can reduce temperatures by up to 3.9 degrees Celsius.

  • Green roofs also perform well

  • their temperatures can be as much as 4.4 degrees Celsius cooler than conventional roof finishes

  • and - if used across an urban area - could reduce temperatures by as much as 7 degrees Celsius.

  • The benefits of temperature regulation can also be found in deciduous trees, which offer

  • passive solar shading in the summer, while allowing the sun's rays to penetrate deep

  • into a building's floor plan during winter months.

  • Trees can also reduce the amount of exhaust gases and particles in the air, with some

  • studies claiming that they help reduce local concentrations of nitrogen oxide by up to 57%.

  • Aside from their physical impact, there is powerful evidence that the inclusion of plants

  • within our built environment can deliver psychological benefits too.

  • Hospital patients with views of green spaces have had faster recovery times and plants

  • have been shown to reduce stress amongst office workers, which in turn increases their productivity.

  • This can often lead to extensive planting being added to existing structures, either

  • as a way to replace lost habitats or decrease urban island heat effect, or to create green

  • spaces for the benefit of people living and working in dense urban areas.

  • Projects of this kind include Chicago's green roofs project launched in 2001,

  • as well as linear parks, such as the 1993 Promenade Plantee in Paris

  • This was the precursor to the hugely popular High Line

  • that now occupies a disused elevated freight railway in Manhattan, which first opened in 2009

  • and Thomas Heatherwick's unrealised Garden Bridge in London, proposed in 2013.

  • Arguably more exciting is the growing trend of integrating entire trees into built structures

  • - leading to increasingly ambitious projects with deep, strategically placed planters that

  • provide enough space for tree roots to develop.

  • One of the most impressive examples of this is ACROS, a cultural centre in Fukuoka, Japan.

  • First opened to public back in 1995, this 14-storey building designed by Emilio Ambasz

  • steps down to meet the city's Tenjin Central Park.

  • The building contains deep planters alongs the edges of its terraces that allow trees to take root and grow.

  • Its 5,400 square metres (or 58,000 square feet) of greenery

  • contained some 37,000 plants representing 76 different species when it first completed.

  • Today, it contains more than 120 varieties of plant and over 50,000 individual specimens.

  • Architectural office MVRDV took a similar approach when designing the Netherlands'

  • pavilion for the 2000 Expo in Hanover, Germany.

  • Here, the entire fifth floor of the structure was given over to a 'forest' in which

  • deep planters accommodated mature trees.

  • Although the structure has since fallen into disrepair, with the mature trees dying off,

  • a new generation of shrubs and trees has since colonised the structure

  • proving the soundness of the principle

  • Later in the decade, architecture and engineering firm WOHA designed the Royal Pickering Hotel in Singapore,

  • which included extensively planted terraces at four storey intervals featuring

  • tropical shrubs, vines and palm trees.

  • This building completed in 2013, just a year before the twin towers ofBosco Verticale

  • or theVertical Forestin Milan.

  • Conceived by Stefano Boeri Architects, these residential towers -

  • standing 112 metres and 76 metres tall respectively in central Milan

  • - are the first successful example of tall buildings fully covered in trees.

  • Standing between 3 and 6 metres tall when they were first planted, the trees will be

  • allowed to reach maximum height of 9 metres before being pruned.

  • In order to ensure their stability in the wind, the trees are tethered to the building using steel wires

  • Structurally, buildings that incorporate trees will of course require special consideration

  • and additional strengthening and reinforcement in areas.

  • In the case of Bosco Verticale the additional cost of this reinforcement was clearly offset

  • by benefits and did not prevent the project proceeding.

  • There are other issues to consider when mixing trees with buildings too - such as the embodied

  • carbon of the steel used in reinforcement or building superstructures and the increased

  • demands placed on maintenance.

  • In this example, the project team were able to use Milan's excess underground water

  • to cultivate the trees, minimising the towers' ecological footprint.

  • Another challenge posed by this new building type, with large amounts of potentially flammable

  • organic matter attached to facades, is fire.

  • Principally, engineers use established guidelines for green facades and green roofs to ensure

  • their buildings meet fire safety regulations.

  • Regular pruning and irrigation also help to mitigate the risk of fire, as does ensuring

  • that the soil contains a relatively low percentage of organic matter.

  • Learning from his work in Milan, Stefano Boeri is currently working on a number of similar

  • projects in places such as Switzerland, China and the Netherlands.

  • The concept of incorporating trees into buildings is also employed across South-East Asia and

  • features heavily in the work of Vietnamese studio Vo Trong Nghia - who have incorporated

  • trees into buildings as diverse as private residences through to a university office in Hanoi

  • Currently under construction in Taipei, Belgian architect Vincent Callebaut's Agora Tower,

  • based on the form of a DNA double helix, will feature extensively planted balconies.

  • Meanwhile in Shanghai, British designer Thomas Heatherwick's 1,000 Trees, a mixed-use building

  • that features trees and shrubs on its structural columns is nearing completion

  • ...and in the UK, Heatherwick's Maggie's Center in Leeds uses its roofs to create

  • a stepped garden, complete with trees and lush vegetation.

  • In Singapore, WOHA continue to design green architecture, including the Oasia Hotel Downtown,

  • a 27-storey tower that features a trellis-like facade and three large sky terraces with swimming pools and palms

  • This innovative structure was named "Best Tall Building Worldwide" in 2018

  • by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.

  • The designers and engineers working on the latest generation of treescrapers

  • have also decided to tackle the issue of embodied carbon

  • and the considerable amounts of energy consumed when manufacturing steel and concrete.

  • Increasingly, carbon-negative materials such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) or glue laminated

  • timber, commonly known as glulam, are being used.

  • High rise structures such as the proposed 18-storey Tree Tower Toronto by Penda

  • or this 350 metre tall theoretical proposal for Sumitomo Forestry's headquarters in Tokyo by Nikken Sekkei

  • demonstrate the continually growing trend of incorporating trees into buildings

  • and the work of today's architects and engineers to push this concept to its very limits

  • If you enjoyed this video and would like to get more from the definitive video channel for construction

  • subscribe to The B1M.

In an effort to create a more pleasant, healthier and sustainable built environment,

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When Trees Meet Buildings

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    joey joey に公開 2021 年 04 月 26 日
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