字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント 226, that's the number of decisions we make about food every day, according to a 2007 Cornell University study. The physical and symbolic environment in which we make these decisions is called choice architecture, a phrase coined in 2008 by behavioural economists Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein. Adjustments to choice architecture encourage people towards certain behaviours, that's nudge theory. The smell of baking in a supermarket and sweets by the checkout, these are nudges. But can nudging be harnessed to promote food sustainability? In 2012, a study at Indiana University showed that by removing trays from the student canteen and reducing the surface area for diners to fill, 18 per cent less food was wasted. Language can have an impact. For plant-based meals, the words, 'meat-free', and 'vegan' may signal a social identity that many don't aspire to. Recent trials conducted by the World Resources Institute found that when Sainsbury's meat-free sausage and mash was renamed Cumberland spiced veggie sausages and mash, sales increased by 76 per cent. But critics of consumer nudging say it avoids tackling the hole in the food chain. The UK's Behavioural Insights Team, a government backed company that uses psychology to try to change public behaviour, is looking at double nudges to be introduced through policy. These would be aimed at consumers, yet also encourage businesses to change. An example of this is the UK's 2018 sugar tax on soft drinks. Customers have to pay the tax, but as a result, companies dropped the sugar content of their drinks by almost 30 per cent per 100 mil to keep prices down. The supermarket sustainability rating system could function in a similar way and is being considered by Behavioural Insights. It would give food retailers a clear overall sustainability score so consumers would only need to make one sustainability decision over where to shop instead of considering each individual product. Subconsciously, people are more receptive to habit alterations in times of upheaval, as the world is experiencing right now due to the coronavirus. For that reason behavioural scientists see this moment as a potentially exciting window for change.