字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Prof: Okay. Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. My name is Craig Wright and this is "Listening to Music," the most basic course that the Department of Music has to offer. Its aim is to teach you how to listen to music. "Wait a minute," you say. "That's preposterous. I listen to music all the time. I've got, what, my iPod, I'm downloading mp3 files, continually swapping files. I've got my car..." (What do we call those things in the automobile where you-- Is it a DAT tape that you can take your iPod and plug it in to the-- your--the stereo system in your car?) "I've got that. I listen to music in my dorm room off my computer, in the bookstore, wherever. I bet I listen to a lot more music than you do, you old goat." And you're right. You probably do. But what kind of music are you listening to? Well, probably pop music and that's fine; that's okay, fair enough, pop music. But are you getting the most out of this particular experience? Are you getting the most out of your listening experience? I contend that perhaps you are not, that you are not maximizing the time, using that time most profitably. How do I know this? What makes me think that you are not getting as much as you possibly can out of your music? Well, experience, to some degree, but also an experiment that I did just last weekend. I have four children. The last of the four has now turned seventeen so I said last weekend-- he's always with the iPod on--"Chris, what are you listening to?" "Go away. You're bothering me." Okay. "You're ruining my life again." So > "Well now, come on. Let me listen to this. Let me listen to it. What are you listening to?" So I listened to it and I said, "All right. Here, you listen to this and tell me what you're hearing." And what did--what was he tracking? He was tracking the text; he was tracking the beat of the piece. I asked him, "Well, what's the mode of the piece? What's the meter of the piece? What's the bass doing? Can you follow the bass line there? Can you identify any chords in this particular piece?" Nothing. Zero. And this from a reasonably sophisticated kid who's had twelve years of serious cello lessons, and that brings up, I suppose, a point: that although I don't know much about your music I think I can teach you a great deal about your music by using the paradigms of classical music. So I'm going to tell you a lot about classical music in here: Mozart, Bach, Beethoven. It will be the locus of our course. How many of you already listen to classical music? Raise your hand. Okay. Great. A lot of you and that's wonderful. I'd be interested to know, gentleman down here, how do you do this? Is it streaming off of your computer? Are you downloading mp3 files and saving them? How--Tell me. How do you do it? Student: I just go to YouTube. Prof: You go to YouTube. All right. Very interesting. I should have known that but I didn't. You go to YouTube and you listen there. Anybody else do it a different way? Yes? Student: On the radio. Prof: On the radio. Okay. That's interesting. We'll come back to that point. Anything else, anybody? Yes? Student: My parents' CDs or records. Prof: Okay. Your parents' CDs or records. That's wonderful. They have sort of the old technology here but some of those old recordings might be very, very good. Now here is a question for you. Why would we want to listen to classical music? Why do--why--who just answered a question for me, those folks who raised your hand? What--gentleman here again. I'll--you're my sacrificial lamb this morning. Why do you like to listen and why would you want to listen to classical music? Student: It relaxes me. Prof: Okay. Very interesting. National Public Radio asked exactly this question in a survey a year or so ago and they got the following principal responses back. Why do people listen to classical music? One, it helps them relax and relieve stress, so this is perhaps the principal reason. Two, it helps us center the mind, allowing the listener to concentrate. Three, classical music provides a vision of a better world, a refuge of beauty, of majesty, perhaps of even-- of love--and sometimes, at least for me personally, it suggests that there might be something out there, God or whatever, bigger than ourselves, and it asks us to think sometimes, think about things. That's what I think these great fine arts do, great literature, poetry, painting, music. They show what human beings can be, the capacity of the human spirit. They suggest to us as indicated maybe there is something, a larger spirit out there than ourselves, and they get us to think. They get me to think frequently about what I'm doing on this earth. What are you doing on this earth? > Don't answer that. What am I doing on this earth with regard to this particular course? What am I trying to accomplish in here? Well, maybe two things. One, change your personality. I want to make you a richer person, a broader person, by instilling you with an unending deep and abiding understanding of classical music, so that's part of this, and not just here for Yale but for your life after Yale. I would hope that how you lead your life ten years from now, twenty years from now, thirty years from now, would have been significantly influenced by this particular experience in this course. And secondly, if I'm successful in my teaching I will accomplish this second aim here. I will impart to you a love of classical music. You, through, later on after Yale, your attendance at concerts, buying of one fashion or another, downloading mp3 files, iTunes or whatever it happens to be, maybe being members of your local symphony board, opera company, something like that, maybe giving music lessons to your children, you will become the purveyors of classical music thereafter. You, the intelligentsia of the next generation, will be those that preserve this great treasure of Western culture and it is a great treasure of Western culture. Okay. How are we going to do all of this? How are we going to accomplish these two things on our list of agenda here? What are the mechanics of the course? Did you all get a syllabus? Everybody's got a syllabus? The first three or four weeks or so we'll be following the elements of music: rhythm, melody and harmony--and then a test. Next we will deal with what's the--arguably--the single most important thing when we listen to any piece of music and that is its musical form. Here is a question for you. I was thinking about this the other day as I was preparing the lecture for today. What's the most common type of musical form in pop music? When you listen to pop music do you ever think about the form of the music? Can anybody name a form of pop music, any one form? Well, maybe verse and chorus? Think about that. That shows up in a lot of stuff and we'll come back to that. We'll talk about verse and chorus when we get to the issue of form. And then toward the end of the course we will turn to the question of musical style. How does a piece of pop music differ from a piece of classical music? We sort of all know this intuitively but can we articulate why? This particular difference about musical style was driven home to me the other day. It was last Friday. I was walking across the campus--maybe you saw this too, corner of Elm and College. There was a large flatbed truck out there and there were these people on this truck getting you-- trying to sell you audio equipment, and they had a big banner up there. It said "Pump Up Your Room." Okay? So then to encourage you to "pump up your room" they had music playing and this is the kind of music that they had on that flatbed truck. > Okay. I'm feeling very pumped up at that particular point > and my cell phone rings. Okay. My--This is true. My cell phone rings and because one has the capacity nowadays to select your own ring tone--right? I have mine selected not to that sound but to Mozart, so I hear this sound on my telephone. And it will give us a sense of the difference in style between pop music and classical music. How does this, what we're about to hear, differ? Can you give me, say, three or four reasons why what we're about to hear differs from what we just heard? > Mozart. > Can anyone tell me? What's the difference between these two? What's the--what did the pop piece have? That's Rave 'Til Dawn. That's my--I own that album, I'll have you know, Rave 'Til Dawn. Gentleman back here. Student: In classical music there's much more attention to detail. Prof: Yes, that's probably true as a general observation, whether it comes through clearly on these two-- this comparison--I'm not quite so sure, but there--I wouldn't say there's a great deal of detail in the first one. There's a lot of repetition. That's where I--once that gets going, it goes for a long period of time. Anything else? Yes? Student: A melody? Prof: Oh, melody. Which one had the melody? Student: The classical music. Prof: Yeah. > The first I couldn't pick out any melody at all. It was all what? Rhythm and beat. Okay? So repetitious, rhythm, beats, strong pulsation to it.