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  • What is Epistemology? The word itself comes from two Greek words: "Episteme" which means

  • knowledge or understanding, and "Logia" which means science or study.

  • So, in a philosophical context Epistemology is the study of knowledge in general. Examples of

  • philosophical epistemology questions are - What does knowledge mean and how does a person

  • get to know something and what is the basis for true knowledge?

  • What is knowledge? Some say it's justified true belief. It means that a person must be able to

  • justify the claim, and the claim itself must be true, and the person must also actually believe in it.

  • Let's assume that a person says - I know that people have walked on the Moon. For this to be

  • true knowledge, it must be possible to justify that claim, it must also be a fact, and finally the

  • person must also actually believe that people have walked on the Moon.

  • So, how do you justify a belief? Well, it's done by using evidence. This evidence must be of

  • good quality and it should also be a logical and reasonable piece of evidence.

  • Over time there's been two major branches of philosophy called epistemology, namely

  • Empiricism and Rationalism.

  • Empiricism: True knowledge is primarily founded on input from our senses; the empirical world

  • around us. And it's important to refer to experience and observations when beliefs and claims

  • are justified and proven. So, ideas or traditions, although they might be important, but they are

  • not the primary, most important sources for new knowledge.

  • Rationalism, on the other hand, emphasizes reason, rather than experience and observations, as

  • the primary basis for justifying beliefs and claims. Thus, the rational (hence rationalism) and

  • logical human mind is the source for new knowledge, not the material world around us. So,

  • according to rationalism, research results are verified primarily by reasoning.

  • In a non-philosophical context, we've seen the use of the concept of epistemology

  • and, this is because the task of producing new knowledge

  • is a major part of the everyday work of academics.

  • So, epistemology has a significant impact on the scientific endeavors of most scholars given the

  • importance of this concept for discussing the limits and

  • possibilities of creating and reporting new knowledge.

  • Further, scholars in certain academic departments and disciplines such as, for example,

  • curriculum and instruction, educational science, and pedagogy have, more or less, an inherent

  • interest in issues related to knowledge.

  • Formal Epistemology, what is that? Well, it is the study of questions such as - what is

  • knowledge, how may a belief be justified, how do we know something, and how do we know

  • something is true?

  • However, the theories, concepts, and arguments used here are used in a non-philosophical

  • context, for example, in mathematical logic, statistics, linguistics, computing,

  • and other academic fields.

  • Genetic Epistemology, well, it's used to understand the cognitive development among children

  • and how children interact, understand, learn, and acquire new knowledge about the world. So,

  • in short, the theory implies that symbolic systems, i.e. the individual's thoughts and knowledge

  • are based on sensory-motor schemes, i.e. the individual's impressions and experiences in the

  • world. And this concept of genetic epistemology comes

  • from the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.

  • Social epistemology is about the social context for creating new knowledge. Social epistemology

  • is studied in academic fields such as sociology, psychology, and education. In focus are human

  • and social aspects of knowledge production. For example, historical and cultural factors, the

  • access to and the use of learning tools, and so on.

  • So, having access to YouTube and the tutorials about philosophical concepts could be a perfect

  • example of aspects that are in focus for those that interested in Social Epistemology.

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What is Epistemology? The word itself comes from two Greek words: "Episteme" which means

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認識論とは何か?言葉と概念の紹介 (What is epistemology? Introduction to the word and the concept)

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    Precious Annie Liao に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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