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  • Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English.

  • I'm Dan and joining me today is Catherine.

  • Hey Catherine.

  • Hey Dan.

  • So Catherine, do you prefer a brew or a cup of joe in the morning?

  • Well, if you are referring to whether I prefer a cup of tea, which we sometimes call 'a

  • brew', or a cup of coffee, sometimes called 'a cup of joe', I prefer my coffee in

  • the morning.

  • I only drink coffee when I really need to wake up quickly.

  • And, why are you asking, Dan?

  • Because it's part of this 6 Minute English.

  • Coffee.

  • I see.

  • So how do you take it then, Dan?

  • Well, I'm an instant coffee kind of guy.

  • And I like mine with a dash of milk.

  • How about you?

  • A dash of something is a small amount of something, especially liquid.

  • Personally, I prefer freshly-ground coffee beans, and I like my coffee dark and strong

  • - preferably Colombian or maybe Brazilian.

  • Wow.

  • A coffee aficionado, eh?

  • An aficionado is a person who's very enthusiastic about, or interested in, a particular subject.

  • Well, let me test your knowledge with this week's quiz question.

  • The specialty coffee, Kopi luwak, is made from coffee beans which have already passed

  • through an animal's digestive system.

  • But which animal?

  • a) an elephant

  • b) a cat

  • c) a weasel

  • I'm always going to answer b) a cat.

  • Did you say this coffee actually goes through the animal?

  • As in, it eats it and then it comes out the other end, and that's what we use for the

  • coffee?

  • Well, yes.

  • It is actually one of the most expensive coffees in the world.

  • Anyway, we'll find out if you're right or not later on.

  • So, talking of expensive, do you tend to pay more for your coffee or are you happy with

  • the cheap as chips stuff?

  • Cheap as chips means very cheap.

  • And personally, I do actually like a quality product, and I am willing to pay a bit more

  • for it.

  • Would you be willing to pay even more than you already do if it meant that the farmer

  • who grew the beans was getting a fairer price?

  • I would because I think that that sort of thing is important.

  • And you aren't alone.

  • There is a growing trend among many Western customers of artisan cafes to be willing to

  • pay more for ethically produced coffee.

  • Ethical means morally right.

  • So, Dan, why is this trend happening at the moment?

  • Well, it's probably been going on for a while, but a new report from the UN's World

  • Intellectual Property Organisation has observed the effect that smarter processing, branding

  • and marketing has had on the farmers and their communities.

  • And because of this, coffee drinkers are better able to choose ethically produced coffee that

  • puts more money in the hands of the farmers.

  • But, Dan, do the farmers actually see any of this money?

  • Well, it's complicated.

  • The price of the coffee is relatively cheap until it's been roastedor cooked in

  • an oven.

  • As a result, roasters take most of the profits.

  • But there is still a difference.

  • I'll let Johnathan Josephs, a business reporter for the BBC News explain.

  • Jonathan Josephs , Business reporter, BBC News

  • For a pound of coffee beans that end up in the instants (section) sold in supermarkets,

  • the roaster can get over $4.

  • But the export price is just $1.45.

  • The farmer gets most of that.

  • But when the new wave of socially-aware customer pays a premium for higher standards, the roaster

  • can get $17.45, but the export price also rises to $5.14.

  • A premium is an amount that's more than usual.

  • So the farmer makes three-and-a-half times as much money.

  • Which means a better quality of life for the farmer, their family and their community.

  • That's good news!

  • I will definitely look for the ethically produced coffee from now on.

  • As long as, Dan, it doesn't come out of some animal!

  • Yes, actually that reminds me.

  • Our quiz question.

  • I asked you which animal the speciality coffee Kopi luwak comes from.

  • a) an elephant

  • b) a cat

  • c) a weasel

  • And I said a cat.

  • And you are wrong I'm afraid.

  • Kopi luwak comes from a type of weasel.

  • I'm kind of relieved about that.

  • Let's try not to think about it, and have a look at the vocabulary instead.

  • OK.

  • So, first we had dash.

  • A dash of something is a small amount of something, usually a liquid.

  • Where might we talk about a dash of something, Dan?

  • Well, I like my tea with a dash of milk.

  • My gin with a dash of tonic, and my soup with a dash of salt.

  • Then we had aficionado.

  • An aficionado is someone who is very interested or enthusiastic about a subject.

  • What are you an aficionado of?

  • I'm working on becoming a bit of an accordion aficionado actually, Dan.

  • Wow, cool!

  • Yeah!

  • After that, we had as cheap as chips.

  • Is something as cheap as chips?

  • Then it is very cheap indeed.

  • Like my shoes!

  • I bought them at a market for next to nothing.

  • They were as cheap as chips.

  • Then we had ethical.

  • Something which is ethical is morally right.

  • Do you consider yourself to be an ethical person, Catherine?

  • Well, I try, Dan.

  • I don't always get it right, but I do attempt to be.

  • After that we heard roasted.

  • Roasted means cooked in an oven.

  • Like our coffee beans!

  • And of course our very famous English roast.

  • Finally, we had a premium.

  • If you pay a premium, you pay more than usual - usually for a better quality or service.

  • Can you think of an example?

  • If you're going to the cinema, you might pay a premium to get more comfortable seats.

  • And that's the end of this 6 Minute English.

  • Don't forget to check out our YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram pages, and we'll see

  • you next time.

  • Goodbye.

  • Bye!

  • Hello.

  • This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English.

  • I'm Neil.

  • And I'm Sam.

  • Have you always wanted to learn to dance the tango, do a magic trick, or skydive?

  • If so, perhaps you need a bucket list – a list of all the things you want to do before

  • you diethat's the topic of our programme.

  • Bucket lists have been called 'the greatest hits of your life' and have helped some

  • people overcome anxiety and fear of following their dreams.

  • But they've also been accused of limiting the imagination by encouraging people to follow

  • someone else's idea of the perfect life.

  • So, what would be on your bucket list, Neil?

  • Are you a skydiving kind of person?

  • Not really!

  • Bungee-jumping maybe - as long as someone checked the elastic rope!

  • How about you?

  • One thing I've always wanted to do is swim with dolphins.

  • Well, you're not alone there, Sam, because swimming with dolphins is one of the most

  • commonly included personal goals on bucket lists.

  • But which of the following things do you think tops the list?

  • That's my quiz question for today.

  • Is it:

  • a) swimming with dolphins

  • b) getting a tattoo, or

  • c) seeing the northern lights

  • I'll go for a) swimming with dolphinsone, because it's something I really want to

  • do and two, because I've heard so many stories about how it improves your mental health.

  • Well, that was certainly true in the case of blogger Annette White.

  • She listed hundreds of things she wanted to accomplish - from learning Spanish to hanging

  • out with penguins in Antarctica - as a way of improving her psychological wellbeing.

  • Here she is talking to Claudia Hammond for BBC Radio 4's programme All in the Mind:

  • You said that you started all this to try to help you overcome your anxietyhas

  • it done that?

  • It definitely has and I feel that the reason is because that promise to live my bucket

  • list really continuously pushes the comfort zone to its limits and beyond it.

  • So every time I can have a chance to step out of my comfort zone, a little piece of

  • that fear of the unknown is removed and replaced with a little piece of empowerment, and by

  • continuously doing that, the size of my fear bubble has gotten smaller.

  • Annette feels that choosing adventurous goals for her bucket list helps her step outside

  • her comfort zonethe situations where she feels safe and comfortable but where her

  • ability and determination are not really being tested.

  • Moving out of her comfort zone has helped Annette replace her feelings of fear with

  • feelings of empowermentthe process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially

  • in controlling her life.

  • Well, that all sounds pretty good to me.

  • But not everyone is convinced that bucket lists can really help people like Annette

  • in the long run.

  • Here's clinical psychologist Linda Blair to explain why:

  • I'm not really in favour of bucket lists.

  • There are a couple of reasons.

  • Most of all, you're kind of fooling yourself with a bucket list.

  • We fear death, more than I think we fear anything else in our existence, because we can't

  • predict it, and because we don't know what it's like because nobody comes back and

  • tells us.

  • And when you create a bucket listsomething to do before you 'kick the bucket',the

  • idea that you're giving yourself is that you can somehow control when and what death

  • is going to be all about.

  • We only make sense of our lives at the end of it.

  • A bucket list takes you away from the chance to be spontaneous and I think it's so delicious

  • to be able to say, 'that's an opportunity?

  • oh, I'll do that!'

  • Linda thinks some people use bucket lists as a coping strategy to try to control something

  • uncontrollabledeath.

  • In this way they are fooling - or deceiving - themselves - trying to make themselves believe

  • something they know is not really true.

  • And by having a checklist of adventures to tick off before they die, people might lose

  • the chance to be spontaneousto act in a natural and impulsive way without planning.

  • Linda also uses an unusual expression which gave 'bucket list' its name in the first

  • place.

  • A bucket list is all the things you want to do before you 'kick the bucket' – an

  • informal way of saying, 'die'.

  • 'Kick the bucket' is an old English expression that was even used by Shakespeare.

  • It refers to kicking the bucket away from under the feet of a hanging man, leaving him

  • to drop to his death.

  • Well, anyway, I hope I don't kick the bucket before I've had a chance to tell you the

  • correct answer to today's quiz.

  • Remember, I asked you which personal goal was most often included in bucket lists?

  • I said, a) swimming with dolphins

  • But the actual answer was c) seeing the northern lights

  • Well, maybe we could combine the two in a single trip

  • And then get a tattoo!

  • That would be spontaneous!

  • Today, we've been discussing bucket listslists of all the things you want to do

  • before you 'kick the bucket' – an informal way of saying 'die'.

  • Bucket lists can be a great way to feel empoweredstronger and more in control of your life,

  • because they take you out of your comfort zonecomfortable situations which are

  • safe but not challenging.

  • But others think you're foolingor deceiving yourselfif you think bucket lists can

  • really help you control your life.

  • In fact, they might even make you less spontaneousless able to act in natural, sudden and

  • impulsive ways.

  • That's all from us for now.

  • Why not go and make some plans for all the things you'd like to do in your life?

  • And start having adventures before we see you next time here at 6 Minute English from

  • BBC Learning English.

  • Bye.

  • Goodbye.

  • Hello, and welcome to 6 Minute English, I'm Neil and joining me today is Rob.

  • Hello.

  • So Rob, what's the most dangerous thing you've ever chosen to do?

  • Mmm.

  • Tricky question.

  • I've done many risky things, but probably the most risky thing is bungee jumping in

  • New Zealand.

  • Oh wow, bungee jumping.

  • You'd never catch me doing that.

  • Did you enjoy it?

  • Not really, no.

  • I won't do it again!

  • OK, well today our topic is risk and how different people react to different levels of risk in

  • different ways.

  • For example, would you be happy to be in a driverless car?

  • Absolutely not!

  • No, I don't trust anybody's driving - even a computer.

  • So no, I wouldn't go in a driverless car.

  • OK, I won't offer you a lift!

  • Driverless cars are the topic of today's quiz.

  • The question is: When was the first driverless car demonstrated on a public road?

  • Was it:

  • a) 1970s

  • b) 1950s

  • c) 1920s

  • I think they are quite modern, so I'm going to say 1970s.

  • OK, well we'll find out if you're right at the end of the programme.

  • Joe Kable is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.

  • In a recent BBC science programme, All in the Mind, he talked about the psychology of