字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Thank you. It's a pleasure to be here. When something really matters it elicits emotion and how do we help people communicate emotion, to make life better, whether at home, at work, for your customers, for your kids at school? Our challenge at The MIT Media Lab and at Affectiva, has been to come up with better ways to measure and help people communicate emotion. I'll start with an example that we did years ago which was a skin conducting sensor that we gave to an audience like you, worn on the palm of the hand and it glowed brightly every time the audience got excited. Every time they were engaged. We learned a lot that day. We learned for example that every time a new speaker came out on stage, the audience glowed. Every time there was a live demonstration, whether it worked or not, the audience glowed. Every time there was live Q&A or laughter, the audience glowed but unfortunately, every single time there was a PowerPoint presentation there was a decaying exponential in brightness. (Laughter) Let's, let's look more closely at an example of the signal changing. Here, for a nine year old boy, watching a movie trailer, the signal will go up about a second after each of the parts of the trailer that cause him to engage. Starting with the music. (Music) The three biggest peaks. (Laughter) See this is where it kind of falls of here though. (Music) He peaks for the name of the movie and the date of it, so you can see why people in Market Research and Advertising are extremely interested in this information or I as an educator, I'm extremely interested too. 'Cause I want to know what content is connecting with my students and with my loved ones. Here's an example of the signal changing with a Patriots fan, back when the Patriots were in the Superbowl. And this one illustrates an important point about skin conductance and that is even as we measure the auto-immunic arousal of a person and their excitement. This goes up with things that are good or bad. So we see it go up here when the guy has a -- when his favorite team scores a touchdown, it also goes up during an endzone overthrow. So it goes up with good and bad. Interestingly, it also goes up during a Dorito's Mouse T.V. commercial, when the mouse comes out and catches the man. (Laughter) It's interesting now that we can get this information in real life, to see how relatively important different events are in life and where the significance of something that you share with somebody, compares with this response to some other things that are going on with their life. What drives this signal? This skin conductance is driven by the autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system response. Your autonomic nervous system has two main branches, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. The sympathetic can be thought of kind of like stepping on the gas, in the car, it revs your heart up, it causes the skin conductance to increase. The parasympathetic causes the heart to decrease. The sympathetic is thought of as fight or flight, the parasympathetic is rest & digest. Almost all the organs are innervated by both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic, except the skin, which gets the pure sympathetic, which makes it ideal for us measuring this fight or flight response. Now, I became interested in measuring this response when I started working a lot with people in the autism spectrum, who are non-speaking. The most heart-breaking stories, that I hear from these -- from the families and the individuals themselves, when they later acquire the ability to speak, is that, the changes that were worst, were when they got kicked out of school or were shipped off to an institution, removed from learning opportunities and social opportunities. What caused that to happen? Usually it was a meltdown or a series of meltdowns and the meltdowns, like adult tantrums, appear to come from nowhere. One moment the person seemed calm and relaxed, the next moment they might have become injurious to themselves or to others. So, they seemed very unpredictable and uncontrollable. Now, as we undertook the privilege of getting to know some individuals who could later communicate, they told us that these meltdowns never came from nowhere that, in fact, they were always preceeded by increasing stress and frustration. They couldn't understand why people couldn't see what was bugging them. So this made me think, "Wow, what if we could enable them even though they can't communicate, to signal out their increasing stress and frustration?" But to do that required a device that is shown on the left here, a classic, galvanic skin response, skin conductance sympathetic nervous system measure, that involved a lot of wires and boxes, and that was uncomfortable to wear in daily life. So my team at MIT went through lots of iterations until we came up with a device that could be worn robustly on the wrist and gather data in real life. This has just been commercialized by Affectiva and I'm pleased to say is finally available as a product for people to gather and communicate this information in the real world, outside the lab. Here's the first example of seven days of data that I saw from a student at MIT wearing the skin conductance sensor on his wrist. And the first thing that jumped out here was there's a lot of studying and it's very activating. Studying and lab work, in fact, sort of to the discouragement of we, professors, is much more arousing that any of the classroom activity. (Laughter) We also saw these huge peaks that were happening during sleep which puzzled us in the first place. We just expected sleep to be flat. Generally, as we did further polysonography, and teamed up with some expert sleep researchers on this, we found that these peaks tend to occur during slow wave sleep or deep sleep, and we're now looking at the relation of those to sleep quality and memory and learning. Here's an example, of a girl on the autism spectrum, where she's able to communicate out her arousal level, using this sensor. Here she's wearing one on each ankle so you'll see two signals streaming across the bottom. She's wearing it while she's undergoing an ordinary occupational therapy session. This is 45 minutes of an ordinary session here, and you'll see, you know, it peaked here and she had a little bit of a meltdown here, got in a ball-pit, calmed down, peaked here, calmed down. What you see up here, in blue, is right now, this window here the right edge is what you're seeing in the video and we see that it peeked as she climbed on this swing, but as she starts swinging, as that rhythmic activity kicks in, it has this nice, decaying exponential. We see for many people on the autisim spectrum, when they rock, or do these repetitive movements they can be very calming for them. They're not just doing that to be difficult or something. It didn't have a very important, regulatory effect. In fact, I've noticed an increasing number of rocking chairs, cropping up in airports since 9/11 and they're almost always taken, at least at Boston Logan. I think that's a healthy sign. Once you get the ability to make a new measure in the real world and have people wear it, unobtrusively in daily life, you learn a lot of things that are surprising and this is a really special surprise we ran into. One of our kids on the autism spectrum was wearing this over Christmas. I was looking at the data and I saw this enormous peak on one side not the other side, I thought: "Oh dear, something is going wrong with the sensor!" I looked more closely and it looked like it was fine before the peak and after. I asked his brother, "Any idea what could have happened here?" and he said, "I was with him and he had a seizure right after." Wow! I got on the phone with Joe Madson, Boston Children's Hospital, "Is there any way somebody could have a huge auto-immunic surge on one side of the body with a big seizure?" He said: "Yes" Fast forward about 8,000 hours of data and extensive analysis, led by my student, Ming-Zher Poh for his doctoral work and we have now shown that measuring signals from the wrist, reflects signals measured from the brain and the seizures are labeled by the epileptologists reading the EEG only, they coincide exactly with these peaks, measured just from this electrical signal, from the surface of the skin, on the wrist. So this was really mind blowing to me! That a change in our brain could show up as these events, picked up through a simple wrist band. We're hoping this now can lead to better detection and treatment in real time of people who suffer from seizures, of the seizure events themselves. Now another thing that kind of surprised me in doing this, was -- the events show up, sometimes, on just one side. Usually the two sides are showing the same information. We where just measuring two sides for redundancy, to cancel noise, but we found that -- we learned something that was already in the literature the right hemisphere of the brain controls the electrodermal activity of the right palmar surface, and the left, the left. I sort of rediscovered this when a tragic event happened in my family. I lost a loved one and that day I was at work, having trouble speaking. Those who know me, know I never have trouble speaking. So, one of my colleagues, Ron Elco, said: "Put a sensor on both sides!" I'm strongly right-handed and sure enough, the left side was incredibly suppressed. That night I was, sitting in the kitchen, in this total stupor, just kind a stirring a pot of something and one of my sons came up and started rubbing my back which, I felt really blessed, this is a very special moment, I almost felt hope restored and then, his little brother came up and did the same thing to him. I had one of those rare moments of parental bliss, where you kind of tingle down to your toes especially as a mom of sons. And -- (Laughter) at that moment, my little one looks up at the display in the kitchen, 'cause of course I'm streaming my data wirelessly to this monitor, (Laughter) and he says: "Mommy, you're lines crossed!" My right signal that was way above my left, had come together during that moment of parental bliss. Now I thought: "Wow! I've heard about positive and negative stuff for the brain you now might show up but I never thought this could show up on the wrist. Now, that's just a few data points, but I monitored myself overtime, with sleep and sure enough, the signal, as I recovered, went back to the normal sort of switching, left and right. Now this is just a few data points but it shows that there's this whole new potential to explore what's going on in the brain, even by measuring some of these peripheral signals downstream. There are many positive moments as well, that people have shared with us, using our emotion technology. Here's one from a bride in India, who, naturaly, was sort of stressed out before her wedding you see lots of peaks. Her friend loved seeing this part where she was chilling with her friends and they helped calm her down before and then the four major peaks here, during the wedding ceremony. The first, where the vows were exchanged, the second, third and fourth in the Hindu ceremony where the bride and groom exchange symbolic gestures that they are now husband and wife. Here's an example where a mother and a daughter wanted to share the daughter's experience at school. The daughter had her first, big concert, in front of school that day. She was playing a harp and singing in front of the entire school and she expected it would be kind of peeked there, and it was. Also it was very peeked during physical education, to be expected anything that gives physical exertion, makes you sweat, can be very arousing. Her mom was very disappointed to see that math lessons, (Laughter) was the low point of the day. But there was this other, huge peak there between Reading and PE, and -- What was that? Turned out the daughter had a talk with her mom, later that day. In fact as she recalled this experience, we see the emotions coming back up again. This was this horrible, bullying event that she was being dragged into by her friends. Wouldn't it be amazing if the people we care most about were given the opportunity to share, in an externalized way some of what was going in their day that was so difficult. Whether they can speak or not, this can be a powerful way to take your emotions outside of you and begin to reflect on them and share them with others. I have one last example with the skin conductance sensor, a personal one. I discovered one day while taking my son ona birthday outing to Six Flags, that I indeed had big peaks with the Roller Coasters, which I love, and a really awful one with a ride that I won't tell you about, that was very unpleasant. (Laughter) But the surprise to me, when I looked at the data at the end of the day, was not that I had this huge peak when I'm on the fastest, highest, most intense roller coaster in all of New England, but it was actually earlier in the day when we were just trying to get out the door. (Laughter) Many people on the autism spectrum who are conversant, tell us that they have difficulty reading facial expressions, they are trying to pay attention to what you're saying and at the same time, they can't tell if you're looking pleased or displeased, interested or bored.