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  • In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

    1942 年母のキャサリン・クック・ブリッグスと娘のイザベル・ブリッグス・マイヤーズの2人は、性格を16に分類するためのアンケートを作りました。

  • Called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI, it would go on to become one of the world's most widely-used personality tests.

    それはマイヤーズ=ブリッグス・タイプ指標 、または MBTI と呼ばれ、世界中でよく使われる性格診断テストになりました。

  • Today, personality testing is a multi-billion-dollar industry used by individuals, schools, and companies.

    現在、性格診断テストは 数十億ドル規模の産業となり、個人、学校や会社で利用されています。

  • But none of these tests, including the MBTI, the Big Five, the DiSC assessment, the Process Communication Model, and the Enneagram, actually reveal truths about personality.

    しかし、実は MBTI、ビッグファイブ、DiSC 性格診断、PCM やエニアグラムをはじめ、このテストのどれもが本当の性格を明らかにしているわけではありません。

  • In fact, it's up for debate whether personality is a stable, measurable feature of an individual at all.

    実際、性格が 安定して測定できる個人の特徴であるかどうか議論の余地があります。

  • Part of the problem is the way the tests are constructed.


  • Each is based on a different set of metrics to define personality.


  • The Myers-Briggs, for instance, focuses on features like introversion and extroversion to classify people into personality "types" while the Big Five scores participants on five different traits.

    例えば MBTI は、内向性と外向性などの特徴に着目して、性格の「タイプ」に分類します。ビッグファイブは5つの特徴ごとに点数を出します。

  • Most are self-reported, meaning the results are based on questions participants answer about themselves, so, it's easy to lie.


  • But even with the best intentions, objective self-evaluation is tricky.

    だから簡単に嘘はつけますが なるべく正直に答えたつもりでも、客観的な自己評価という点において、問題があります。

  • Take this question from the Big Five:


  • How would you rate the accuracy of the statement, "I am always prepared"?

    「私はいつもあらかじめ計画を立てている」 この主張の正確さをどのように評価しますか。

  • There's a clear favorable answer here, which makes it difficult to be objective.


  • People subconsciously aim to please.


  • When asked to agree or disagree, we show a bias toward answering however we believe the person or institution asking the question wants us to answer.


  • Here's another question:


  • "What do you value more, justice or fairness?"


  • "What about harmony or forgiveness?"


  • You may well value both sides of each pair, but the MBTI would force you to choose one.


  • And while it's tempting to assume the results of that forced choice must somehow reveal a true preference, they don't.


  • When faced with the same forced-choice question multiple times, the same person will sometimes change their answer.

    何度も同じ選択問題を出されると、同じ人でも答えが 変わってしまうことがあります。

  • Given these design flaws, it's no surprise that test results can be inconsistent.


  • One study found that nearly half of people who take the Myers-Briggs a second time only five weeks after the first get assigned a different type.

    ある調査では MBTI を受けた人の半数近くが、たった5週間後に受けた2回目のテストで別のタイプに振り分けられました。

  • And other studies on the Myers-Briggs have found that people with very similar scores end up being placed in different categories, suggesting that the strict divisions between personality types don't reflect real-life nuances.

    別の調査によると MBTI で、とても似通ったスコアだった人が結局異なるタイプに分類にされました。つまり性格のタイプの厳密な区分は、現実における微妙な違いを反映していないのです。

  • Complicating matters further, the definitions of personality traits are constantly shifting.


  • The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung who popularized the terms introvert and extrovert defined an introvert as "someone who sticks to their principles regardless of [the] situation" and an extrovert as "someone who molds their self according to circumstance".


  • Introversion later came to mean shyness, while an extrovert was someone outgoing.


  • Today, an introvert is someone who finds alone time restorative, an extrovert draws energy from social interaction, and an ambivert falls somewhere between these two extremes.

    今日では内向的な人は 一人の時間にくつろぎを感じる人、外向的な人は人付き合いで元気を取り戻す人という意味になっています。そして両向的な人はこれらの2つの間に落ち着きます。

  • The notion of an innate, unchanging personality forms the basis of all these tests.


  • But research increasingly suggests that personality shifts during key periods, like our school years or when we start working.


  • Though certain features of a person's behavior may remain relatively stable over time, others are malleable, molded by our upbringing, life experiences, and age.


  • All of this matters more or less depending on how a personality test is used.


  • Though anyone using them should take the results with a grain of salt, there isn't much harm in individual use, and users may even learn some new terms and concepts in the process.

    診断テストの結果を鵜呑みにしなければ、個人的に使うぶんにはあまり害はありません。むしろ診断テストを受ける中で新しい用語や 概念を学ぶこともあるでしょう。

  • But the use of personality tests extends far beyond self-discovery.


  • Schools use them to advise students what to study and what jobs to pursue.


  • Companies use them decide who to hire and for what positions.

    企業は 誰をどのような役職で採用するかを決めるのに利用しています。

  • Yet the results don't predict how a person will perform in a specific role.


  • So, by using personality tests this way, institutions can deprive people of opportunities they'd excel at or discourage them from considering certain paths.


  • So, what about the infamous Rorschach inkblot test?


  • How does the test work?


  • And does it really work at all?


  • Find out where the test comes from and how psychologists use it with this video.


In 1942, a mother-daughter duoKatharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersdeveloped a questionnaire that classified people's personalities into 16 types.

1942 年母のキャサリン・クック・ブリッグスと娘のイザベル・ブリッグス・マイヤーズの2人は、性格を16に分類するためのアンケートを作りました。

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    林宜悉 に公開 2022 年 06 月 05 日