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  • \f0\fs24 \cf0 The presence of evil, pain and suffering in our world is the most persistent

  • argument raised against the belief in God. Usually it goes something like this...\

  • \ An all-knowing God would know evil exists.\

  • An all-loving God would want to prevent evil from existing.\

  • An all-powerful God could prevent evil from existing.\

  • But evil does exist.\ \

  • Now given that the fourth proposition would appear to be undeniable, it can be inferred

  • that one of the other three must be false, and thus there cannot be an all-knowing, all-loving

  • and all-powerful God. Or, to put it another way, if God does exist, He must be either

  • "impotent, ignorant or wicked". Checkmate, or at least some people think that.\

  • \ However, not too long ago, an American philosopher

  • named Alvin Carl Plantinga put forth a new proposition that is intended to demonstrate

  • that it is logically possible for such a God to create a world that does contains evil.

  • This is how he summarized his defense: A world containing creatures who are significantly

  • free (and freely perform more good than evil actions) is more valuable, all else being

  • equal, than a world containing no free creatures at all. Now God can create free creatures,

  • but He can't cause or determine them to do only what is right. For if He does so, then

  • they aren't significantly free after all; they do not do what is right freely. To create

  • creatures capable of moral good, therefore, He must create creatures capable of moral

  • evil; and He can't give these creatures the freedom to perform evil and at the same time

  • prevent them from doing so. CS Lewis would agree saying, imagine a wooden beam became

  • soft as grass when it was used as a weapon, and the air refused to obey me if I attempted

  • to set up in it the sound waves that carry lies or insults. But such a world would be

  • one in which wrong actions were impossible, and in which, therefore, freedom of the will

  • would be void; nay, if the principle were carried out to its logical conclusion, evil

  • thoughts would be impossible, for the cerebral matter which we use in thinking would refuse

  • its task when we attempted to frame them. Continuing his defense Plantinga says "As

  • it turned out, sadly enough, some of the free creatures God created went wrong in the exercise

  • of their freedom; this is the source of moral evil. The fact that free creatures sometimes

  • go wrong, however, counts neither against God's omnipotence nor against His goodness;

  • for He could have forestalled the occurrence of moral evil only by removing the possibility

  • of moral good."\ \

  • So, even though God is all-powerful, it is possible that it was not in his power to create

  • a world containing moral good but no moral evil; therefore, there is no logical inconsistency

  • involved when God, although wholly good, creates a world of free creatures who chose to do

  • evil.}

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A2 初級

悪、痛み、苦しみ=神ではない? C.S.ルイスの反応 (Evil, Pain, Suffering = NO GOD? a C.S. Lewis response)

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    Precious Annie Liao に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日