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  • I made a mistake. Years ago, I made a video  about ED ending verbs, an accent training video,  


  • I went over the rules. But not how Americans  actually say these words in sentences. Don't  

    私はルールを調べました。しかし アメリカ人が実際にどのようにこれらの言葉を 文章で言うかではありません使わないでください。

  • make the same mistake I made. There are rules but  when it comes to accent training, you need to know  


  • how Americans actually pronounce these ED endings  in various situations, in various sentences.  


  • Sometimes the ED ending is completely dropped. So  there's a good chance you're over pronouncing the  


  • ends of these words. With this fix, you'll sound  more natural and understand Americans better. And  

    これらの単語の語尾を修正します。この修正があれば より自然に聞こえて アメリカ人をよりよく理解できるようになりますそして

  • you'll have an easier time speaking englishWe're going to go to youglish and look through  

    英語を話すのが楽になりますよ youglishに行って目を通してみると

  • tons of examples together, so you know you're  getting what native speakers actually do.  


  • As always, if you like this videoor you learned something new,  


  • please give it a thumbs up and subscribe with  notifications, it helps a lot. Thank you so much.


  • There are very few rules in American English  pronunciation that don't have a lot of exceptions.  


  • But there are actually some useful rules when  it comes to ED endings. We'll go over these,  


  • but first, I just want to point out thatlot of the most common verbs are irregular,  


  • which means the past tense doesn't add an ED. I  do becomes I did, I go becomes I went, and so on.

    ということは過去形ではEDが追加されないということになります。I do は I did になり、I go は I went になります。

  • If you're at this level of english, you already  know a lot of these. And you probably learned  


  • something wrong about the regular past  tense, the pronunciation of ED endings.


  • There are three rules. The first one is: if the  sound before the ED ending is unvoiced, then the  


  • EDending becomes a T. Worked, for example. The  K sound is unvoiced. Kk-- that means only air  


  • makes the sound, not a vibration of the vocal  cords, kk--. So for an unvoicED ending the ED is  


  • also unvoiced, tt-- tt-- the T sound is unvoicedWorked. Worked. You probably learned that. Worked.  

    また、Tの音がアンボイスになっている、tt--tt--。 働いた。うまくいった。あなたはおそらくそれを学んだ。うまくいった。

  • And you learned that pronunciation with that true  T. Okay, let's go to Youglish where we can hear  

    その真のTの発音を覚えたんですね では、Youglishに行って聞いてみましょう

  • some Americans saying this word, worked, with that  tt-- T sound following the rules of pronunciation

    アメリカ人の中には、この言葉を「働いた」と言っている人がいますが、そのtt - Tの音は、発音のルールに従っています。

  • We're going to do a search on the phrase  'worked for', worked for, in American English.

    アメリカ英語で「worked for」というフレーズで検索してみます。

  • So then one of the two adults  who worked for the program said-- 


  • Worked for the program. Wait, I didn't hear  that. Did you? I didn't hear worked for the  


  • program. I didn't hear that T: ttt--- I heard  work for the program. Let's listen again


  • Let's try it in slow motion. If we  slow it down here, do we hear the T? 


  • Two adults who work for the program said-- Work for the, work for the, work for the.


  • There's no T, it sounds like the present tense  work for. I work for them. But it's past tense,  

    Tがないのは、現在形のwork forのように聞こえます。彼らのために働いています。でも過去形です。

  • and we know that because she's telling a story  about something that happened to her in the past.


  • All right, well, let's listen to another  one. Are we hearing the T in worked?


  • My dad worked.


  • Okay, there he said: worked. Let's  listen to that in a full sentence.


  • You know, he worked for Chrysler--


  • Oh no! When he put the word in the  sentence, he dropped the T again.  


  • What's going on? Well, in American  English, it's pretty common to drop a T  


  • when it comes between two consonants. This  happens for example in the word exactly.  


  • Most Americans won't say that T. ExactlyThey'll say: exactly, dropping the T sound.

    ほとんどのアメリカ人はTとは言わない その通りだ 彼らはこう言うでしょう: exactly, drop the T sound.

  • Or on the phrase: just because, most Americans  will drop that T because it comes between two  


  • consonants. And we'll say: just because--  jus be-- right from the S to the B with no T.

    子音を使っていますそして、こう言います: just because... jus be... 右のSからBまでで、Tはありません。

  • So this can happen with these  ED endings. As we go through  


  • all the rules for ED endings in this videowe're going to look at not just the rules,  


  • but what actually happens when Americans speakSo you're getting effective accent training.

    でも実際にアメリカ人が話すときにはどうなるのでしょうか? 効果的なアクセントトレーニングを 受けているということですね

  • So rule one was: unvoiced endingED is pronounced like a t. Tt--


  • Rule two: if the ending of the  word in the infinitive is voiced,  


  • the ED ending will also be voiced, which is a D.


  • Let's go to Youglish to find some examplesWe'll look at the phrase: opened the--

    Youglishで例文を探してみましょう。 では、次のフレーズを見てみましょう: opened the-.

  • Oh no, it happened again. Opened the door--  became open the door, with no D sound,  


  • even though it was in the past  tense, even though in english,  


  • it would absolutely be written with that  ED ending. Let's listen in slow motion.


  • Nope. No d. We'll talk more about this  D later but, for now, let's go and look  


  • at the third rule for ED endings. If the  final sound is D or T, the ED ending adds  


  • not just an extra sound like ttt or ddd, but an  extra syllable. You can think of this as being IH  


  • as in sit or schwa plus D. And it's  said very quickly, it's unstressed.

    シットやシュワプラスDのように。 そして、それは非常に早く言われています、それはストレスを感じさせません。

  • So need becomes needed. That last syllable,  


  • always unstressed, said quicklyNeeded, ded ded ded. Needed.

    常にストレスのない、すぐに言った。 必要とされている、ded ded ded。必要とされている。

  • So we're learning these three rules. Workedopened, and needed. And we're also learning  


  • how these endings might change when part ofsentence. Let's go into more detail about rule  


  • one. ED is T after an unvoiced sound. These are  all of the unvoiced sounds in American English.  


  • But we've already said that T goes with rule  three. Also there are no words that end in the H  


  • sound. Plenty of words that end in the letter  but none that end in the sound that I know of,  


  • so for our ending sound for rule one, we  have: ch-- ff-- kk-- pp-- ss-- sh-- and th--

    ルール1の語尾の音は次のようになります: ch... ff... kk... pp... ss... sh... そして th...

  • For all of the words in this category, if the  ED word is at the end of the sentence, you will  


  • pronounce that T. How did you get there? I walkedWalked. With a light release of the T sound. For  

    Tと発音するんだ どうやって行ったの?歩いた 歩いた。Tの音を軽く離して歩いたのは

  • all of the words in this category, if the ED word  is linking into a word that begins with a vowel  


  • or diphthong, you will lightly release the T into  that word, connecting the two words, for example,  


  • walked a lot, walked a lot, walked a--  tuh tuh tuh. The T linking into the schwa.

    たくさん歩いた、たくさん歩いた、たくさん歩いた...tuh tuh tuh tuhTがschwaにリンクしています。

  • But if the next begins with a consonantmany times, a native speaker will drop  


  • the T sound. Let's look at each of the  possibilities. We'll start with the CH  


  • like in the word watched, in the phrase:  I watched the best movie last night.  


  • I watched the best-- watch the best--  I watched the best movie last night.


  • Now let's play me saying that phrase in slow  motion, you won't hear a T: I watched the best  


  • movie last night. To fully pronounce the  T, it would sound like this: watched the,  

    昨夜は映画を見ました。Tを完全に発音するには、これのように聞こえるだろう: watched the.

  • watched the. I watched the best movie last  night. I watched the best movie last night.  


  • And that's just not as natural as: I watched  the best movie last night. Dropping the T.

    そして、それが自然とは思えない。昨夜は最高の映画を見た"T "を落として

  • Now, do you have to drop the T? Will every  American always drop the T between two consonants?  


  • No. I'm sorry. This is one of the things  where sometimes Americans will do it,  


  • and sometimes they won't, but just  knowing about it is going to help you  


  • understand what's happening in  American English conversation.


  • And you're going to hear a lot of examples  in this video that will help you feel more  


  • comfortable dropping the T in these ED ending  words so that you can sound more natural too.


  • We're going to go to youglish and we're going  to listen to two people saying the phrase:  


  • watch the-- the, the first time, you'll  hear a T dropped, no T at all, and then not.


  • Watched the original-- I didn't hear a  T there. Let's listen in slow motion.


  • Okay, no T. Here's an example though where  there's a clear T in the phrase 'watched the'.

    ここに例があるんだけど、'watehed the'というフレーズの中に明確なTがあるんだ。

  • Watched the-- so this one can go either  way. The thing you don't want to do is  


  • drop the T but then not connect it to the  next word, you do want to connect them.   


  • You can only get by with dropping that T if you  connect. But even when we say this T, remember,  


  • it's not tt-- watched. It's got less energy than  that. Watched ttt--- watched the-- a very light T.


  • Next, the unvoiced sound f. Let's link it into  a vowel. Stuffed a-- stuffed a-- stuffed a-- 

    次は声にならない音f 母音につなげてみましょう詰められた...詰められた...詰められた...詰められた...

  • Light true T connecting. Let's look at stuffed  the-- where the next sound is a consonant. I  

    ライトトゥルーT接続。次の音が子音になっているstuffed the--を見てみましょうI

  • stuffed the blanket into the bag. Stuffed the-- I  went to Youglish and I heard both pronunciations,  

    毛布をバッグに詰め込んだStuffed the... Youglishに行ったら両方の発音を聞いた。

  • with the light T release and then also droppedLet's listen to some. Here, it's dropped.

    を軽快なTリリースで、その後もドロップしています。 いくつか聴いてみましょう。ここで、ドロップしました。

  • And here it is lightly pronounced.


  • I'm not sure uh if you guys stuffed  the box. Stuffed the-- stuffed the--


  • The k sound, like in kicked, I  kicked it, linking into a vowel,  


  • we do a light T release. Kicked it-- ttt--- when  the next sound is a consonant like kicked the--  


  • I kicked the ball. This can go either  way. Here's an example where it's dropped.


  • And here's one where it's not dropped.


  • But I want to say I listened to about 50 samples  on Youglish of 'kicked the' and I only found one  

    しかし、Youglishで'kicked the'のサンプルを50個ほど聴いてみたのですが、1個しか見つかりませんでした。

  • or two where the T was pronounced. Also in these  samples, I found a lot of them were in the phrase:  


  • kick the can down the road. This is an  idiom that means to deal with a problem, or  


  • make a decision later. For example, let's say my  car broke down, it's an old car and I probably  


  • need to buy a new one, but I don't know what  to get, and I don't have a lot of money, so  


  • I kicked a can down the road and just got  this one fixed. I know eventually, I'll have  


  • to face the problem and replace the car but for  now, I'm going to kick the can down the road.


  • Next, P, like in the word hoped, hoped, I  hoped it would get better. Hoped it-- ttt--  

    次のPは、言葉のように hoped, hoped, I hoped, I hoped it would get better.hoped it...ttt...

  • light release of the T, linking intovowel. Let's look at 'hoped that'. Now the T  

    母音にリンクするTの軽快な解放hoped that'を見てみましょう。今度はTが

  • is between two consonants, and that sound  might get dropped in spoken english. I found  


  • quite a few examples of both dropped and  pronounced. Here's one where it's dropped.

    かなりの数の例が 落とされたものと発音されたものの両方を示していますここではそれが落とされているものがあります

  • And here's one where it's not dropped.


  • Sometimes, I sense my students panic  when there are two ways to do something.  


  • Are there cases where it's right and cases  where it's wrong? Not really. Both dropped  


  • and pronounced T will work. But my students  don't have to want to make a decision in  


  • the moment. Sometimes, that's stressful, so  just pick. In general, you'll pronounce it  


  • lightly or you won't. I think for a lot of my  students, dropping it makes it a little easier,  


  • makes linking easier. You'll hear native speakers  do both but you find the one that's right for you.


  • You know, as I think of it there is one more  point we need to discuss for all of these rule  


  • 1 ED endings. When a word ends in a T sound, which  all of these do, and it's followed by you or your,  

    1 EDの語尾。単語の語尾がT音で終わるとき、これらのすべてがそうで、それはあなたやあなたの後に続きます。

  • that T can be turned into a ch. For  example, helped you can become helped you,  

    Tがchになることができること、例えば、helped youはhelped youになることができること。

  • helped you. Does that sound familiar? Helped  you. Helped you. Let's listen to an example.


  • Helped you? Helped you? Ch---  


  • So you can hear this ch for any of these wordsFor example, missed, which you'll study next,  

    なので、このchはどの単語でも聞くことができます。 例えば、次の勉強になるミスド。

  • 'missed your' can become: missed your--  missed your-- let's listen to an example.

    'missed your'は次のようになることがあります:missed your--missed your--例を聞いてみましょう。

  • Missed your-- okay, let's look at thesound like in the word missed. If the next  

    Missed your... よし、missedという単語の中のSの音のようなものを見てみよう。次の

  • sound is a vowel or diphthong, you'll hear the T,  linking in like in the phrase 'missed it' ttt--


  • Or if it's at the end of the sentenceyou'll hear the T. You'll be missed,  


  • missed. But followed by a consonant. Let's  look at the example: missed the-- missed the--

    を逃した。しかし、子音が続きます。例を見てみましょう:missed the--missed the--を見逃した

  • Now when I just said those two words togetherit was really natural for me to drop that T.  


  • Missed the-- that's what I want  to do. Missed the-- miss that--


  • When I search for 'missed the' on Youglish, almost  all had the dropped T. So it actually just sounds  

    Youglishで「missed the」を検索してみると、ほとんどがTを落としたものでした。

  • like the present tense 'missed the'. Let's go  to Younglish, you tell me if you hear the T.

    現在形の「missed the」のようにヤングリッシュに行こう!Tが聞こえたら教えてくれ

  • Did you hear the T for the  past tense? Listen again.


  • No it's not there. Dropped T here is so naturalNow here's one where we will hear the t.

    そこにはありません。ここのドロップTはとても自然です。 今ここではTを聞くことになります

  • In both of these cases, we heard the idiom to  miss the boat. It means to miss your chance to do  


  • something, to miss an opportunity. For example, my  mom invited me on a trip, but I took too long to  


  • decide if I wanted to go, and she invited someone  else. I missed the boat. I decided I really wanted  

    私が行きたいかどうかを決めると 彼女は他の人を誘ってきた私は船に乗り遅れた本当に行きたいと思ったのは

  • to go, so I was bummed about it. Sh. Let's use  the word push, followed by a vowel or diphthong,  


  • you will hear the T linking in: pushed a--  pushed a-- tt--he pushed a kid at school.


  • But followed by a consonant, like in 'pushed  the'. If I say that fast in a sentence,  

    しかし、'push the'のように子音が続きます。文章の中でそんな早口で言ったら

  • he pushed the wrong button, I will probably  drop that T. I just listened to Youglish  


  • and almost everyone there dropped the T in  'pushed the'. Maybe 90%. Here's an example.

    と、そこにいたほぼ全員が'push the'でTを落としました。たぶん90%ですね。ここに例を挙げてみましょう

  • And here's one where he  does say the t. Pushed the.


  • Let's look at the unvoiced TH like in the word  unearthed. If followed by a vowel or diphthong,  


  • you'll hear a light T: we unearthed  another clue. Unearthed another, ttt--

    "光の音が聞こえます" "別の手がかりを発掘しました出土したのは...

  • To unearth means to dig something out of the  earth, but it also means to discover something,  


  • something that had been hiddenlost or kept secret. For example:  


  • I unearthed a secret from my father's  past. If followed by a consonant,  


  • it can be dropped. I listened to a lot of examples  and most of the time it was dropped. Here's one.

    落とされることがあります。いろいろな例を聞いてみましたが ほとんどの場合は落とされていましたここではそのうちの1つです。