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  • in the deserts of new mexico scientists  have been conducting groundbreaking energy  

    ニューメキシコの砂漠で科学者たちは 画期的なエネルギーを研究してきました

  • and weapons research since the end of world war ii


  • and in the shadow of the sandia mountains  inside this u.s government facility  


  • that work continues we're part of the  national nuclear security administration  


  • we're doing work to ensure that we have  safe and reliable nuclear deterrent  


  • but beyond that sandia national labs also works  to develop advanced technologies to ensure global  


  • peace though that still involves some danger  there are radiation hazards in the building  


  • when the machine fires it creates radiation today  this facility is the world's most powerful and  

    機械が発射されると放射線が発生します 今日ではこの施設は世界で最も強力で

  • efficient laboratory radiation source capable of  creating conditions found nowhere else on earth  


  • there's a rumor that some of the folks  filming the avengers movie wanted to use the  


  • as a portal and have something come out  of it this team of physicists engineers  


  • and technicians are in the final stages of  careful preparation to fire the z machine


  • so this is a z machine it's the nation's flagship  pulse power facility the whole point of the z  


  • machine is to store energy and then compress it  in time and space to achieve high energy densities  


  • essentially this means the z machine can replicate  the cosmos right here on earth allowing scientists  

    本質的には、Zマシンは地球上に宇宙を 複製することができます。

  • to run a wide array of experiments giving  researchers the ability to study everything  


  • from plasma to x-rays to neutrons and nuclear  fusion expanding beyond weapons research to drive  


  • innovation in the fields of material science  renewable energy and even helping redefine our  


  • very understanding of the universe so how does  the z replicate the stars down in the desert


  • this entire facility a third of a football  field in diameter as essentially one giant  


  • machine engineered to store and then  fire more than 20 megajoules of energy  


  • the way we do that is the outer ring of the  machine is a series of marks capacitor banks  

    我々 はそれを行う方法は、マシンの外輪は一連のマーク コンデンサー銀行です。

  • they store about 20 mega joules of energy  28 mega joules is a fully loaded 18 wheeler  

    約20メガジュールのエネルギーを蓄えています 28メガジュールは満タンの18台の車に搭載されています

  • barreling down the freeway full speed that's  20 megajoules of energy but it's electrical  


  • energy stored in capacitors charged up overminute and a half there's 36 separate modules  


  • that radially transport that energy intotarget all this energy from the z machine  

    そのエネルギーを放射状にターゲットに輸送することができます Zマシンからのこのすべてのエネルギーを

  • flows into the very center this is made  possible by the technology beneath our feet  


  • we're standing above the oil section of z inside  this whole section is filled with oil right now  


  • it's drained out so we can take a look and we  can see the marks capacitors down there these  


  • big silver boxes that store electrical  energy as the machine prepares to fire  


  • roughly three hours out from the day's scheduled  fire six hundred and fifty thousand gallons of  


  • transformer oil fills the section insulating  disease generators and capacitors three hundred  


  • and fifty thousand gallons of deionized water also  fills the adjacent section closer to the center  


  • of the machine so deionized water has a very high  dielectric constant and it's good for filling the  


  • parallel plate transmission lines that then take  the energy into the center of the machine when the  


  • z machine fires energy from its marks capacitors  discharge and travels along transforming lines  

    z マシンは、そのマークのコンデンサの放電からエネルギーを発射し、変換線に沿って移動します。

  • which pulse compress that energy as it makes  its way to the center target so we started out  


  • minute half charging by the time we're in this  water section we're shortening that pulse to 100  


  • nanosecond rise time that's 100 billionths ofsecond with the current from all 36 modules rising  


  • to 20 25 mega amps and now if you can imagine that  18 wheeler barreling down the freeway hitting a  

    20 25メガアンプにして、今、あなたが想像できるならば、18台の車が高速道路を突っ走っているのを想像してみてください。

  • dime and depositing its energy into a dime and not  only that but it's dumped in on the time scale of  


  • a few nanoseconds or to put it another way the  z machine fires more than one thousand times the  


  • electricity of a lightning bolt twenty thousand  times faster hitting a target the size of a dime  


  • this center circle is the z machine's experiment  chamber currently being cleaned and prepped  


  • by technicians this is where the immense  energy fired by the massive machine ends up  


  • everything about this size in the middle is  destroyed and turned either into debris and  


  • particulate or a little further into molten metal  or very close to the middle into a hot plasma  


  • that stuff goes splattering all over the walls  of the machine that's why it looks black in there  


  • there's soot from the debris from disassembling  targets in decades of previous experiments on z  


  • using currents measuring roughly 26 million  amps z compresses that energy in time and space  


  • generating x-ray emissions of 350 terawatts  and producing incredibly high energy densities  


  • we can produce temperatures hotter than  the sun you can create plasmas that are  

    太陽よりも高温のプラズマを 作り出すことができます

  • equivalent to plasmas around white dwarfs you  can create plasmas equivalent to plasmas and  


  • accretion disks of black holes but creating  the stuff of stars makes a really big bang  


  • aside from the highway being a radiological hazard  and they're being hard x-rays that are emitted  


  • from the machine there's a lot of straight  voltage strain energy you would not want to  


  • stand here during a shot the pulse-powered  z machine is able to convert roughly 15  

    ショットの間にここに立って パルス動力のZマシンは ざっと15を変換することができます

  • of the electricity from its marks capacitors  to x-rays at its center the energy that we're  


  • putting finally into the center is equivalent  to a couple sticks of tnt that's all packed into  


  • sort of like a cubic centimeter sort of volume as  far as energy conversion this is fairly efficient  

    立方センチメートルのような体積のようなものです エネルギー変換はかなり効率的です

  • but when you're dealing with more than 20  megajoules of energy we get a couple sticks  


  • of tnt in the middle but we started out withfully loaded 18 wheeler what happens the rest  


  • of it that's where we get the arcs and sparks  the discharges across the top of the machine  


  • we get shock in the water section there's actually  plasma channels formed in the water switches when  


  • they self break and transfer the power down  line the plasma channels form it's like little  


  • mini lightning bolts between two conductors  in the water section and just like you have  


  • thunder from a lightning bolt you have water shock  that reverberates through the machine attention

    稲妻からの雷がマシンに反響する水の衝撃がある 注意

  • every time the z machine fires it  generates a shock wave that can be  


  • felt throughout the building my office  for example is probably 300 yards away  


  • on the second floor i can feel the  building shake every time z shoots

    2階では Zが撃つたびに建物が揺れるのを感じる

  • it's even been said that if you're looking  at the right place at the right time  


  • you can actually see dirt rise from  the desert as the shock wave goes out  


  • we like to aim for 150 shots here we don't operate  24 7 we have sort of a defined window we typically  


  • shoot late in the day after each fire the team  will clear the debris remove all the instruments  


  • at the center clean and refurbish those  instruments and then reassemble the z machine  


  • then there's a few more hours in terms of  installing the target diagnostic alignments  


  • with the target now in place and the  diagnostics instruments installed  


  • the high bay is cleared of all personnel as  they enter the final stages of firing a shot


  • z's pump system is engaged to create  a vacuum in the experiment chamber  

    z のポンプシステムは実験室内を真空にするために作動しています。

  • but an hour into the process it's  clear something's wrong there's a  


  • leak somewhere and they're unable to reach the  final vacuum state inside the experiment chamber  


  • if the team is unable to find and seal  the leak the day shot planned several  


  • months in advance can't happen as these  technicians scrambled to locate the leak  


  • the two astrophysicists from the university of  texas grew concerned they know this complication  

    テキサス大学の二人の宇宙物理学者は この複雑さを知っていることを懸念しました

  • could jeopardize their research on white dwarf  stars that they've spent years working on

    彼らが何年もかけて研究してきた白色矮星の研究を 危うくするかもしれない

  • on our next focal point will the team at  sandia successfully fire the z machine  

    次の焦点は サンディア社のチームが Zマシンの発射に成功するかどうかです

  • and recreate the conditions of a white dwarf star


in the deserts of new mexico scientists  have been conducting groundbreaking energy  

ニューメキシコの砂漠で科学者たちは 画期的なエネルギーを研究してきました

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世界で最も強力なX線源の内部 (Inside the Most Powerful X-Ray Source in the World)

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    Summer に公開 2020 年 10 月 21 日