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  • [narrator] This is a stretch test, which engineers use

    これは伸長試験

  • to measure the strength and stretchiness of materials, like rubber.

    物質の強さと 伸縮性を測ります

  • But here, it's testing something different:

    対象はゴムなど

  • tissue from a human cervix.

    でも今 測っているのは―

  • The cervix is the gate between a woman's uterus and her vagina.

    子宮頸部の組織です

  • It blocks anything,

    子宮頸部は 子宮と膣の間のゲート

  • -like a penis, from going any further up. -[whistle blows]

    ペニスの侵入を ブロックしたり

  • [narrator] And it stops important things in the uterus,

    子宮で育つ胎児が―

  • like a growing fetus, from coming down too early.

    早く降りてくるのを 防ぎます

  • Think of the uterus like a balloon.

    風船にたとえると―

  • You blow up the balloon with air.

    ジョイ・サラ・ヴィンク 産婦人科医

  • You have to keep the air in the uterus or the baby inside the uterus,

    膨らますには空気を入れる

  • and that cervix is the knot that keeps the uterus closed.

    つまり胎児ね

  • As an engineer, what's really struck me about the cervix

    子宮頸部は風船の結び目

  • is that a pregnant specimen in the lab...

    技術者として―

  • It just keeps stretching and stretching. It never breaks.

    子宮頸部がすごいと思うのは

  • [narrator] Over nine months of pregnancy, the cervix gets five times stretchier.

    クリスティン・ マイヤーズ 機械技術者

  • When it's soft like the skin on your lips, it opens up.

    妊娠時のサンプルが―

  • And as you may know from experience

    どんどん伸びて破れないこと

  • or from a common TV trope,

    〝妊娠時の組織〞 〝非妊娠時の組織〞

  • that's usually when...

    9ヵ月の妊娠期間中 伸縮性は5倍に

  • Mindy, your water just broke.

    柔らかくなると ゲートが開きます

  • Ah! My water just broke.

    それがテレビなどで よく見る―

  • Oh! I'm sitting here in a puddle of water.

    このシーン

  • Uh... my water broke.

    ミンディ 破水してる

  • Oh, that's cool. We got another one here in the fridge.

    破水した

  • After the baby comes out,

    水たまりができてる

  • this very compliant material has to remodel and repair itself.

    破水した

  • I don't know of any other engineering material

    大丈夫 冷蔵庫にもっとある

  • that can soften or remodel itself that quickly.

    出産後は―

  • [narrator] Put simply,

    勝手に治癒して 性質を変化させる

  • the cervix is an anatomical and engineering miracle.

    他のどんな物質も―

  • But that doesn't make childbirth itself any less daunting.

    こんなに早く変質できない

  • I'm not really scared. I'm, like... Yeah, I am nervous.

    つまり子宮頸部の仕組みは 人体の奇跡

  • [laughs] I'm completely nervous, like, but it's only

    それでもお産は大変です

  • because this is my first kid, so I don't really know what to expect.

    デイシュ・アンソニー 妊婦

  • [narrator] Around the world, 250 babies are born every minute.

    怖くはないけど

  • In hospitals or at home

    緊張する

  • with midwivesdoulas, and doctors.

    ドキドキするわ

  • Some women use drugs for the pain,

    これが初産だから

  • some have C-sections

    想像できなくて

  • or use other medical technology.

    世界中で毎分250人の 子供が産まれています

  • And others don't.

    病院や家庭で

  • [doctor] Sweetheart, show me what you got. Ready? Nice deep breath in.

    助産婦や医師のケアの元

  • Breath. And push from your bottom. You got this.

    無痛分娩や―

  • Two, three, four...

    帝王切開など

  • [narrator] But childbirth still kills more than 800 women every day

    技術の助けを借りたり

  • around the world.

    借りなかったり

  • And one global survey found that up

    さあ頑張って 息を吸って

  • to 30% of women rate childbirth as traumatic.

    いきんで 大丈夫よ

  • I just remember, like, closing my eyes and going inside

    2 3 4…

  • into, like, the deepest part of myself

    今も世界で 毎日800人の女性が―

  • to just be like, "I have to get through this."

    お産で亡くなります

  • I was, like, really traumatized for a really long time.

    世界規模の調査では

  • [narrator] So, what makes childbirth so hard?

    3割が“出産は トラウマ体験だった”と回答

  • And what can women do to have the easiest and safest experience?

    目を閉じて 自分の心の中に入った

  • -[woman] You got this. -[inhales]

    一番 奥まで

  • -[theme music playing] -[moaning]

    “生き延びなきゃ”と思った

  • [gasps, exhales]

    長い間ショックから 抜け出せなかった

  • [narrator 2] The contractions in true labor

    なぜ お産は 困難なのでしょう

  • always have a definite rhythm.

    少しでも楽にするには どうすれば?

  • [narrator 3] You may suddenly wonder

    {\an8}NETFLIX オリジナルドキュメンタリー

  • how the baby can possibly get through that small opening.

    陣痛には はっきりした リズムがあります

  • Don't worry, you'll stretch enough.

    あの小さな隙間を 赤ん坊は通れるのか

  • [man] It is not only pathological knowledge

    広がるから大丈夫

  • which makes the great obstetrician.

    産科医に必要なのは 知識だけではない

  • It is vigilance.

    緊張感だ

  • One that does not let you forget you have in your hands the lives of two people.

    2つの命を 背負っていることを忘れるな

  • [narrator] Most large primates give birth in relatively similar fashion.

    出産

  • The female carries the fetus in her womb for 30 to 40 weeks,

    霊長類のお産は 似通っています

  • and then the baby emerges from the birth canal,

    妊娠期間は30〜40週間

  • usually headfirst, within hours.

    赤ん坊は 頭から産道を通り―

  • But there's one key difference:

    数時間で出てきます

  • humans suffer a lot more.

    でも大きな違いは―

  • It's not like a baby just falls out,

    人間のお産の痛み

  • like some Monty Python sketch, for non-human primates.

    霊長類のお産も大変よ

  • They do struggle, and still,

    ホリー・ダンスワース 人類学者

  • they have a seemingly much more easy childbirth

    モンティ・パイソンとは違う

  • than we have.

    痛みを伴うわ

  • [narrator] Humans labor around nine hours the first time they give birth

    それでも人間よりは ずっと簡単に見える

  • and often go much longer,

    人間の初産は約9時間か―

  • while most chimps labor for just two hours.

    それ以上

  • And there's one part of the struggle of childbirth

    一方チンパンジーは2時間

  • that's harder to quantify-- the pain.

    そして数値化が難しいのが―

  • [woman 1] It felt like the bottom half of my body was gonna explode

    痛みです

  • and erupt goo all over the four walls of the room.

    例えるなら

  • [woman 2] Like you're in some kind of pain blender,

    下半身が爆発して…

  • where you're just being spun around,

    ドロドロが 壁に飛び散る感じ

  • and you don't know what's going on. It feels like you're being ripped in two.

    “痛みミキサー”の中で 回され続けて

  • [woman 3] Everything painted red,

    最後は 体が 裂けるみたいな感じ

  • and there's, like, this alarm that's like... [imitates siren]

    全部が赤く見えて

  • [woman 4] It looked like I was experiencing an exorcism.

    アラームが鳴ってる

  • [narrator] The question of why humans have painful births comes down

    エクソシストみたいだった

  • to anatomy and evolution.

    人間のお産が辛い理由は

  • The theory goes like this:

    体の構造と進化にあります

  • Humans, unlike other primates, evolved to walk on two legs,

    理論はこうです

  • which meant pelvises became more complicated and narrow.

    人間は2足歩行に 進化したため―

  • Our brains also evolved to be bigger than other primates',

    骨盤が複雑かつ 狭くなりました

  • which means bigger newborn heads.

    脳も他に比べて 大きく発達しました

  • {\an8}So chimps get to push out a small head from wide hips,

    新生児の頭もそれに比例

  • {\an8}while we're stuck squeezing out a big baby through a narrow space.

    例えばチンパンジーと比べ―

  • But why did it stop there?

    大きな頭を 狭い隙間から 出すはめに

  • Why didn't we keep evolving our anatomy to make childbirth less painful?

    でもなぜそこで 進化が止まり―

  • Well, why didn't we evolve

    お産は辛いままなのか

  • away from painful bowel movements?

    じゃあなぜ 進化の過程で―

  • And why didn't we evolve out of painful breakups?

    陣痛は無くならなかったの?

  • [narrator] Natural selection doesn't care about pain,

    恋人との辛い別れはどう?

  • just survival. And even though it hurts...

    自然淘汰に痛みは無関係

  • [screams]

    生存が大事

  • ...we keep making babies anyway.

    痛くても…

  • What works, works. And what's good enough is good enough.

    人は子供を作ります

  • It's a terribly tight fit.

    大事なのは 機能するかどうか

  • It's a painful labor. It's a long, protracted labor,

    すごくキツいし 痛みも強い

  • but it works. It's good enough.

    時間もかかる

  • [narrator] So, to continue the survival  of our species,

    でも機能する それで十分

  • women have always been stuck  with difficult childbirths.

    女性は 種の保存のために―

  • -[doctor] Almost there. -[Daysha Anthony] How much more?

    辛いお産を続けてきました

  • [doctor] Not much more. One push at a time.

    あと少し

  • [narrator] The Old Testament says,

    少しって?

  • "With painful labor, you will give birth to children,"

    あと一押し

  • after Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge.

    旧約聖書には―

  • And this scroll from 12th-century Japan shows childbirth as so deadly

    “痛みの中で 子を出産する”と

  • that it attracted evil spirits who were drawn to near-fatal events.

    イブが知恵の実を 食べた後です

  • That's why so many cultures throughout history found ways

    12世紀の日本の巻物では お産の死の匂いに―

  • to protect and comfort women during childbirth...

    邪悪な妖怪が 惹きつけられる場面も

  • with rituals and the support of friends and family.

    多くの文化で―

  • Women also tried to numb their pain

    お産中の女性を 守り励ます儀式が存在します

  • with opium and hashish in the Mediterranean,

    家族や友人のサポートも

  • or in ancient Greece, willow bark, which is chemically similar to aspirin.

    痛みを和らげるため―

  • And scientists invented new tools and technologies

    地中海地域では アヘンやハシシが

  • to help if the baby got stuck.

    古代ギリシャでは

  • Thanks to medical progress, childbirth got less deadly over time.

    柳の樹皮も使われました

  • And one of the biggest areas of progress

    お産を助ける発明品も 開発されました

  • was the Caesarean section.

    医療の進化により お産の危険は減っていきます

  • C-sections actually originated thousands of years ago.

    その最たるものが―

  • They're referenced in almost every ancient culture,

    帝王切開

  • and were performed to save the baby

    実は その起源は 数千年前

  • when the mother had little or no hope of surviving labor.

    多くの古代文化で―

  • One of the first known C-sections where the woman actually survived

    実施されました

  • happened in South Africa in 1826,

    でも母親の生存率は ほぼゼロ

  • performed by the British surgeon James Barry,

    母親が生き延びた 最古の例の一つは―

  • who was actually born a female, Margaret Bulkley.

    1826年の南アフリカ

  • But that wasn't discovered till after his death.

    執刀は英国人医師の J・バリー

  • And around the same time, a medical missionary

    ジェームズ・バリー 外科医

  • observed Ugandan doctors performing C-sections.

    実は女性として 生まれていたことが―

  • He wrote about one operation where the mother and baby both survived.

    死後にわかりました

  • There was no anesthesia,

    同じ頃―

  • but the woman was liberally supplied with banana wine.

    ウガンダでも帝王切開が 実施されていました

  • In the 20th century,

    記録では “母子ともに助かった”と

  • C-sections started to consistently save women's lives.

    麻酔はなく―

  • And then, birthing technology really started to pick up.

    代わりにバナナ酒が 使われました

  • Scientists started using pelvic X-rays

    20世紀には―

  • to chart the average length and rate of labor.

    帝王切開で助かる女性が 増え始めました

  • And for women who didn't progress fast enough,

    そして お産技術は どんどん進化します

  • they developed a new drug to artificially speed it up,

    骨盤のX線検査により―

  • called pitocin, a synthetic form of oxytocin.

    出産時期の予想も可能に

  • It's a naturally occurring hormone,

    進行が遅い場合には―

  • but it floods a woman's body at three events in her life:

    出産を促進する薬も 使われるように

  • orgasm, breastfeeding, and labor.

    それがピトシン

  • Pitocin worked so well that doctors and women

    合成オキシトシンです

  • started scheduling inductions if a woman went a week over her due date,

    この天然ホルモンは―

  • bringing some certainty to an otherwise unpredictable event.

    女性の体内で急増します

  • The history of medical intervention, when it comes to childbirth,

    オーガズムと授乳 お産の時です

  • has a lot to do with the emergence of obstetrics as a medical profession.

    ピトシンの登場で 計画出産が増えました

  • [narrator] For most of history, doctors didn't deliver babies,

    予定日を一週間 過ぎると―

  • midwives did.

    分娩誘発の日時を決めて 出産するのです

  • Women trained in the real world, through experience and observation.

    お産の技術の進化は

  • {\an8}Then in the 1700s in Europe, midwives opened up schools

    ウェンディ・クライン 歴史学者

  • {\an8}with more official training programs.

    産科医という分野の確立と 関係してる

  • {\an8}And as waves of European immigrants

    長い間 お産は 助産婦の仕事でした