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  • Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is some grammatical differences

  • between American English and British English because although we speak the same language

  • and we understand each other, we actually have two varieties of English and we have

  • different rules; we have some different grammar that comes with that.

  • So I think this video is interesting for you if you're learning English. And I suggest

  • you use this video to just make sure that whichever variety you prefer that you take

  • all the rules associated with that variety. So don't think: "Oh, I like the rule for collective

  • nouns in American English, that's easier, I'll do that but for British English, it's

  • easier to spell like that". Don't do that. Just keep it standard. Pick one, learn the

  • rules, keep it standard that way. I also think this will be interesting to you if you're

  • a native speaker, so if you're an American, you're a British person and you just want

  • to compare just for interest's sake.

  • So, let's get started. Number one: collective nouns. A collective noun represents a noun

  • standing for a collection of individuals or not necessarily individuals, but within one

  • bigger thing. So, a good example is government. Government, do you see it as one thing making

  • decisions as the government speaking as one voice, or do you see it as a collection of

  • different political parties, or even different individuals within one thing - the government?

  • In British English, we can make our collective nouns singular or plural to reflect the fact

  • that just because one thing is a group, it doesn't necessarily mean that they're speaking

  • with one voice or one vision. So we can say: "Tom's family is", or: "are coming to visit."

  • In British English. It just depends. Do you have a happy family? Are you one family happy

  • unit or are you a collection of different individuals making up that family; mom, dad,

  • your brothers, your sisters? In which case, you can use: "are". In British English, we

  • can say that, whereas in American English, we have to just use the singular verb. Here's

  • an example: "The government have cut spending". Government is seen as one thing, so we use

  • the singular verb.

  • Moving on now, rule number two. We have different spelling rules also. Here's one to consider:

  • spelling for "ed" words. In American English, it's generally preferred to spell with "ed".

  • Let me tell you a story about something on my other YouTube channel. I have a video there

  • that generates quite a lot of negative comments sometimes because I say something about Americans

  • and they're not very, very happy when they watch it and sometimes people get really angry.

  • And in a comment, somebody was like: "Hey, you can't even spell! You should spell 'learned'

  • with 'ed', not a 't'". And she was like really angry, said all this stuff in there; taking

  • the video way too seriously. And then, it started a bit of a comment thread, and people

  • were like: "Hey, you're embarrassing Americans - you can spell it that way" and things like

  • this. So, that's a good example of how when you... When you're used to your variety...

  • I'm used to British English mainly, I'll sometimes see something in the American variety that

  • confuses me. So obviously that girl hadn't seen "learnt" spelt with a "t" before which

  • is okay in British English.

  • So, in American English, you have a couple of exceptions. You would spell: "dreamt" and

  • "smelt" with a "t". I guess because these words sound like they've got "t" endings,

  • whereas in British English, we have an option; we can spell words with a "t" or "ed" in a

  • lot of cases. Like: "learnt/learned", "burned/burnt", "dreamed/dreamt", and they actually have a

  • different pronunciation as well. We have a couple of exceptions too. We don't say: "smelt"

  • and we don't say: "leapt" - we spell these with "ed". So those are our little spelling

  • differences for you.

  • The third rule now is the past participle of "get". The rule generally... The basic

  • rule is: in British English, we can't say: "gotten". To say: "gotten" is wrong in British

  • English. We use "got" as past participle. Now, I'm observing that people are starting

  • to use "gotten" in British English. It's not considered standard or grammatically correct,

  • but people around my age and people younger than me, they're using "gotten" now and I

  • think that's surely the internet surf; American culture, American film and that kind of thing,

  • and TV series on British people in there for a British language.

  • So, how are we using the past participle of "get" in sentences? You could say... In American

  • English, you could say: "I've gotten a headache". And that sentence means talking about the

  • past and in general. Before, at some point in time, I've gotten a headache. We can't

  • use "gotten" in British English, so what do we say? If we're talking about the past and

  • the same general meaning, we'd need to say: "I've had a headache." At some point in my

  • life, I have had a headache. But what if we want to talk about now, what do we say? In

  • fact, we can use the same sentence. In American English and British English, if we're talking

  • about now, we can simply say: "I've got a headache." And what's important to notice

  • there is we're not using "gotten" as past participle; we're just using "got". The same

  • as British English.

  • And point number four, if we're talking about dates, we have different conventions about

  • the date. So in American English, they don't use an article. They would say: "My birthday...

  • My birthday..." I can't say that sound. "My birthday is September the 9th". Sorry, I did

  • my British English thing, I put "the" in there where it doesn't belong in the American English.

  • You'd say: "My birthday is September 9th". In British English, we need to use "the".

  • We say: "My birthday is the 9th of September". Also using a preposition there. So those are

  • the first four differences. We've got four more differences to look at.

  • Let's go over the last four differences I'm going to talk about between American English

  • and British English. Number five: talking about recent past events. We have a different

  • preference on the grammatical form to use. In British English, we like to use the present

  • perfect. So we'd say: "I have just seen her". Talking about something that just happened

  • recently, I saw my friend. Then I say: "I have just seen her". Whereas the preferred

  • way to say that in American English is with the past simple and using the adverb. So,

  • you could say in American English: "I just saw her". The adverb here is coming before

  • the verb. And in the present perfect, the adverb is going between the auxiliary verb

  • and the main verb in the sentence. So we say: "I have just seen her".

  • We've got two more examples. "He already finished". Compared to: "He has already finished". And

  • in the question form: "Did she leave yet?" Compared to: "Has she left yet?" To say about

  • these last two, these will be heard and spoken American English, perhaps not really written.

  • In written English, American, it's also possible to use the present perfect like how we're

  • using it in British English.

  • Let's look at number six now, using "got". In informal spoken American English, "got"

  • can be used in a different way, in a way that's not really acceptable in British English.

  • So "got" can be used for necessity: "I got to go". In British English, we would say the

  • same thing with the present perfect: "I've got to go". Or: "I've got to go". Yeah, so

  • our general preference is using the present perfect a bit more than in American English.

  • Let's look at using "got" for possession. "Possession" means something you own, something

  • that belongs to you. In American English, informal, spoken - it is possible to say:

  • "I got a car". It's not considered correct, but it's said and it's spoken. Whereas in

  • British English, again, we're using the present perfect, and we say: "I've got a car".

  • Let's look at the next difference now, number seven: compound nouns. A compound noun is

  • when you have two nouns together and the meaning together is one noun. So, here are some examples.

  • In American English, this is how they're formed: it's [verb] + [noun], and then you get something

  • like this: "jump rope" and "dive board". But compare that to British English where we do

  • the form of: [gerund] + [noun]. And another way of understanding gerund is [verb] + [ing].

  • So our preferred forms have "ing". So we can say: "skipping rope", means the same as "jump

  • rope", when you do that thing and you jump; exercise or in the playground at school. And

  • the American "dive board" compares to the English "diving board".

  • And that brings us to the last difference that I'm going to talk about today. This is

  • the most complicated difference I think because in American English, it's a lot clearer what

  • is meant and in British English, this subjunctive mood can be quite hard to grasp what's actually

  • being spoken about. So, what is a subjunctive mood? If you want... Here's the situation:

  • your friend wants to find out how to get to Upstate New York, and somebody says to him,

  • the car hire place or whatever, they said: "They suggested he rent a car". And they're

  • talking about now, that meaning is now. They're giving him an option and an option in the

  • future. Okay? So it's like a hypothetical, it's in the future.

  • Compare that to British English. Two options, first option you can say: "They suggested

  • that he should rent a car". Why is "should" in there? It's a little bit confusing. Okay?

  • My feeling is that "should" is there because we use "should" in like a polite way for making

  • offers and that kind of thing, or saying the hypothetical, talking about now. "They suggested

  • that he should rent a car". And the second way, even more confusing I think because we

  • have a backshift in the tense. We say: "They suggested that he rented a car". So we backshift

  • there, even though the meaning is still talking about now and, you know, potentially his future

  • actions. So yeah, compare this one to... We'll compare these two. "They suggested he rent

  • a car". Meaning now in American English, compared to: "They suggested he rented a car". Meaning

  • now also, with the implication of now.

  • So, there are eight grammatical differences for you between American English and English

  • English. If you did like this video, please give it a thumbs up; really appreciate that.

  • And if you like my teaching style, please subscribe to my channel, not only on my engVid

  • channel, but on my other channel as well because I've got two channels. And you can watch all

  • kinds of lessons on my channel, so I'd really appreciate it. And, oh yes, did I tell you

  • to do the quiz? Go and do the quiz about this because that way, you can exercise your brain

  • and learn more about English and American English. So, see you and come back and see

  • me again. There's a big hug for you, and a good-bye from me. Bye.

Hi, everyone. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is some grammatical differences

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アメリカ英語とイギリス英語-8つの文法の違い (American English & British English - 8 Grammar Differences)

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    Susy に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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