字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Dr. John P. Holdren: Well, good afternoon everybody. I'm John Holdren, President Obama's science advisor and the Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. It's my honor to be able to welcome you all to the White House and to launch this extraordinary event. We're here, of course, to talk about the release of the Third National Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on the United States. It exists. This is the 20-page overview. This is the 140-page highlights. The 840-page whole document is live on www.globalchange.gov and folks are invited to go there but not while today's speakers are talking. The assessment that we're launching today is distinguished by laying out with unprecedented comprehensiveness, disaggregation detail and clarity how the climate is changing across the United States, disaggregated by eight geographic regions, and also by various crucial sectors of the economy. Agriculture, fisheries, the oceans, energy, and so on. It basically is letting Americans know how climate is changing where they work and live, what impacts that is having on things they value, and how this picture is expected to evolve going forward and of course a very substantial emphasis on what can be done about it. We're providing what John Podesta this morning earlier called "actionable science." This is the theme. The President has also emphasized information that people can use to take appropriate action to reduce their vulnerability to climate change and to participate in the actions that reduce the emissions that are driving climate change around the world. I think that the findings of this extraordinary report, about which we'll be saying considerably more, are really the loudest alarm bell to date signaling the need for urgent action so that we can combat the threats and the risk we face from global climate change in this country. As I think you all know, President Obama has long recognized the urgency of this challenge and last June in a speech at Georgetown University on a sweltering hot day, appropriately enough, the President launched his Climate Action Plan. Three-part plan cutting carbon pollution in America, preparing our communities for changes in climate that already are on-going, and leading international efforts to address the challenge. Now, almost a year later, a lot has happened in executing on the commitments made in the Climate Action Plan. The President has directed the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation to develop fuel economy standards for heavy-duty vehicles. Department of Interior has announced its permitting of the 50th Renewable Energy Related Project on federal lands during this administration. The Department of Energy has issued multiple new energy efficiency standards. Department of Agriculture has announced seven new climate hubs to help farmers and ranchers adapt their operations to a changing climate. The administration launched in this room and not very long ago a Climate Data Initiative bringing together extensive government open data and design competitions with strong commitments from the private and philanthropic sectors in order to develop data-driven planning and resilience tools for communities and I should say that Climate Data Initiative and the results of this extraordinary study we're launching today are coming together. All of the information that the study has developed will be available on the web again in user-friendly, accessible forms to provide people with the information they will need to reduce their vulnerability. Of course, as you all know, the President has instructed the Environmental Protection Agency to develop standards both for new power plants, which have already been put out there, and soon there will be standards proposed for discussion on existing power plants and their emissions of heat-trapping gases. So this is a lot of progress. We also announced just a couple of months ago a new strategy to reduce methane emissions that involve characterizing and quantifying the sources of methane emissions, committing to new steps to cut the emissions of that potent greenhouse gas, and outlining a set of actions going forward to improve the measurements so we can tell exactly how well we're doing. That, I would say, is what progress is supposed to look like and today's events around this extraordinary assessment are another big step. As I think probably everybody in the room knows, a critical piece of the President's Climate Action Plan is ensuring that we continue our steady pace to strengthen the science that informs and underpins the actions that we take to address the threats from climate change and ensuring that as we do that, we pursue the insights and the information that are most immediately relevant and useful to the people who need that information. We're talking about the folks who, in some sense, are on the front lines of climate change. The coastal property owners, the farmers, the fishermen, the city planners, the water resource managers, and others whose livelihoods, whose day-to-day decisions, and whose longer-term planning needs to be informed by the best data available. Knowledge about what is happening today in climate change, what's likely to come down the road, and what can be done to reduce vulnerability. And this assessment that we're releasing today, as you might imagine from its extraordinary length -- 839-pages, I think, on the web -- is a virtual encyclopedia of that essential information. The report was four-plus years in the making. It was produced under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. 13 federal agencies and departments involved in that. Leadership came from NOAA and OSTP. The heavy lifting by a 60-person federal advisory committee. Writing team included some 300 individuals. I wouldn't even care to count the number of reviewers in probably one of the most extensive and transparent multi-stage review processes in the history of government reports. And that effort, that extraordinary effort which included experts from government at all levels, from academia, from business, from non-profits has really produced this exceptionally detailed disaggregated accounting of what climate change is already doing in every geographic region of the United States and the most effective sectors of our economy. The single most important bottom line that shines through all these hundreds of pages is that climate change is not a distant threat. It is something that is happening now, it is affecting the American people now in important ways. Summers, on the whole, are longer and hotter with longer periods of extreme heat. Wildfires in the west start earlier in the spring and continue later in the fall. Rain in many parts of the country is coming down in deluges and heavier downpours. People are experiencing changes in the length and severity of seasonal allergies and climate disruptions to agriculture and water resources have been growing. And, of course, again, key insight of this report: it's not the same everywhere. Climate change is not uniform. It is having different impacts in different parts of the country and that's why it's so important that this study based on advancing science over the past five years since the last one came out has been able to disaggregate these on-going and expected impacts regionally. When President Obama launched his Climate Action Plan, he made clear that the information in this new climate assessment would be used and it will be used to inform the efforts at the federal, state, and local levels to increase preparedness for and resilience against the impacts of changes in climate that can no longer be avoided. And I think it's very important to say that this report is not just a bad news story about all the impacts that are happening. It's a good news story about the many opportunities to take cost-effective actions to reduce the damages. I want to acknowledge a number of folks, including the stakeholders in this room, who have gathered to hear about this and who will be crucial actors going out and promoting, propagating, and implementing the findings of this report. We are grateful for all of your engagement, but I do want to thank four key individuals without whom this report would never have come to fruition. Kathy Sullivan the Administrator of NOAA and Under Secretary of Commerce whom you'll hear from later in the program for NOAA's key partnership in bringing this assessment to fruition, and I should mention as well her predecessor Jane Lubchenco who regrets that she couldn't be here but I spoke with her last evening and she handed the reins over to Kathy Sullivan from Jane's earlier involvement from NOAA in this extraordinary effort and again, without NOA's partnership support, needless to say also money, this study would not have been completed. Jerry Mellilo the Chair of the National Climate Assessment Development Advisory Committee affectionately called the NCADAC fac. Jerry's leadership in this endeavor ensured rigor, scientific integrity at every step of the way. You'll hear from Jerry in a moment as well. Cassie Jacobs who was the first executive director of the assessment whose vision and dedication really made this the most transparent national climate assessment ever and who kept the trains running on time for more than two years. Cassie was a great contributor and then Cassie's successor Fabian Loree who seamlessly picked up the ball and saw this report over the finish line with dedication, focus, and competence. I think to these folks and to the entire National Climate Assessment team, the whole NCADAC fac, the 300 authors, the even more numerous reviewers. I think we owe them a big vote of thanks and I want to lead that. (applause) Dr. John P. Holdren: And to the rest of you who are here today are partners at organizations and institutions standing ready to disseminate and communicate the findings of this report and its message that we need to take action and we can take action, I ask each of you here to absorb the energy and enthusiasm that we're generating today, carry it back, share it with your constituencies, share it with your communities. This is, in a sense, a new beginning of this effort to reach out all across the country and incentivize and organize the kinds of actions we need. Tell folks to visit globalchange.gov to get informed about what climate is doing in the regions where they live and work. Ask them to share that information further and invite them to share stories about what they're doing, what their communities are doing by using the hashtag #ActOnClimate. Now, I will wrap up, strap on my Master of Ceremonies hat, and proceed to the introduction of the next speaker who is none other than Dr. Jerry Mellilo. Jerry, I'm surprised to say given the enormous amount of work he had to put in to help bring this study over the finish line, actually has a day job.