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but I'm gonna talk to you about is what I call the greatest machine that never was.
It was a machine that was never built, and yet it will be built.
It was a machine that was designed long before anyone thought about computers.
If you know anything about the history of computers, you will know that in the thirties and forties, simple computers were created that started the computer revolution we have today.
You would be correct.
Except you have the wrong century.
The first computer was really designed in the 18 thirties and 18 forties, not the 19 thirties and 19 forties.
It was designed, and parts of it were prototype.
And the bits of it that were built are here in South Kensington.
That machine was built by this guy, Charles Babbage.
Now I have a great, definitive Charles Babbage because his hair is always completely unkempt like this in every single picture.
He was a very wealthy man and a sort of part of the aristocracy of Britain.
And on a Saturday night in Marylebone, were you part of the intelligence here of that period?
You would've been invited round to his house for a soiree.
and he invited everybody Kings, the Duke of Wellington, many, many famous people and he would have shown you one of his mechanical machines.
I really miss that era, you know, when you go around for a soiree and see a mechanical computer, get demonstrated to you.
But Babbage Babbage himself was born at the end of the 18th century and was a fairly famous mathematician.
He held the post that Newton held at Cambridge and was recently held by Stephen Hawking.
He's less well known than either of them because he got this idea to make mechanical computing devices and never made any off the reason I never made any them.
He's a classic nerd.
Every time he had a good idea.
You think that's brilliant?
I'm gonna start building that one.
I'll spend a fortune on it.
I've got a better idea.
I'm gonna work on this one, and I do this.
When he did this, until Sir Robert Peel, then prime minister, basically kicked him out of number 10 Downing Street and kick him out in those days, That meant saying I bid you good day, sir.
I'm the thing he designed was this monstrosity here the analytical engine.
Now, just to give you an idea of this is this is a view from above.
Every one of these circles is a cog, a stack of colleagues, and this thing is as big as a steam locomotive.
So as I got to talk, I want to imagine this gigantic machine.
We heard those wonderful sounds of what this thing does sound like.
I'm gonna take you through the architectural machine.
That's why it's computer architecture until you about this.
This machine, which is a computer.
So let's talk about the memory.
The memory is very lack of memory of a computer today, except it was all made out of metal stacks and stacks of cox 30 Cox High.
Imagine a thing this high of cox hundreds and hundreds of them, and they've got numbers on them.
It's a decimal machine.
Everything's done.
He thought about using binary, the from with using binary.
The machine would have been so tall it would have been ridiculous.
As it is, it's enormous.
So he's got memory.
The memory is this bit over here.
You see it all like this.
This monstrosity over here is the CPU.
The chip.
If you like?
Of course, it's this big, completely mechanical.
This whole machine is mechanical.
This is a picture off a prototype for part of the CPI, which is in the Science Museum.
The CPU could do the four fundamental functions of arithmetic Addition, Multiplication Subtraction division, which already is a bit of a feat in metal.
But it could also do something that a computer does and a calculator doesn't.
This machine could look at its own internal memory and make a decision.
You could do that.
If then, for basic programmers on that fundamentally made it into a computer, it could compute.
It couldn't just calculate it could do more.
Now, if we look at this and we stop for a minute and we think about chips today, we can't look inside a silicon chip.
It's just so tiny.
Yet, if you did, you would see something very, very similar to this.
This is incredible complexity in the CPU on this incredible regularity.
In the memory of the ever seen electron microscope picture, you'll see this.
It's all looks the same, and it's been over here, which is incredibly complicated.
This all this corporal mechanism here is doing what the computer does because you need to program this thing and it cost.
Babbage used the technology of the day on a technology that would reappear in the fifties sixties and seventies, which is punch cards.
This thing over here is one of three punch card readers in here, and this is a program in the science museum, just not far from here, Created by Charles Babbage, that is sitting there, you go see it waiting for the machine to be built, and there's not just one of these is many off them.
He prepared programs anticipating this would happen, that the reason they used punch cards was the jacquard in France had created the Jacquard Loom, which was weaving these incredible patterns controlled by punch cards.
So he was just repurposing the technology of the day.
And like everything else he did, he's using the technology off his era.
So 18 30 18 40 18 fifties cox steam mechanical devices.
Ironically, we're on the same year is Charles Babbage was Michael Faraday, who would completely revolutionary, privileged FBI, everything with the Dynamo transformers.
Always what's things.
Babbage, of course, wanted to use proven technology, so steam and things now he needed accessories.
Obviously you've got a computer now.
You've got punch cards, a CPU and memory.
You need accessories.
You're gonna come with your nose is gonna have that.
So, first of all, you had sound yet a bell.
So if anything went wrong or the machine needed the attendant to come to it, there was a barely could bring.
There's actually instruction on the punch card.
It says, Ring the bells.
You imagine this team, you know, just stop for a moment.
Imagine all those noises thing.
Click, click, click, click, steam engine, Dean.
You also need a printer.
Obviously, everyone is a printer.
This is actually a picture off the printing mechanism for another machine of his called The Difference Engine number two, which he never built but which the science museum did build in the eighties and nineties.
It's a complete mechanical again, a printer.
It prints just numbers because he was obsessed with numbers.
But it does print onto paper and even does word wrapping.
So get Tiendalli it because you're so need graphics, right?
I mean, if you do anything with graphic So he said, Well, I need a plotter about a big piece of paper and ink pen and I'll make it plot.
So he designed a plotter as well.
Um, on.
You know, at that point, I think he got pretty much pretty good machine.
Along comes this woman, Ada Lovelace.
Now imagine the Suarez all these great and good comes along.
This lady is the daughter off mad, bad and dangerous to know Lord Byron and her mother being a bit worried that she might have inherited some of Lord Byron's madness and badness thought I know the solution.
Mathematics is the solution will teach her mathematics.
That'll calm down.
Because, of course, there's never been a mathematician mathematician that's going crazy, so I'll be fine suddenly refined.
So she's got this mathematical training and she goes to one of these soirees with her mother.
And Charles Babbage gets out his machine.
Duke of Wellington is there.
You know, we got machine obviously demonstrated and she gets it.
She's the only person in his lifetime.
You said I understand what this does, and I understand the future, and we owe to her an enormous amount because we know a lot about the machine that Babbage was intending to build because of her.
Now some people call her the first programmer.
This is actually from one of the paper that she translated.
This is a program written in a particular style.
It's no historically totally accurate that she's the first programmer, and actually she did something more amazing, relevant, just being a programmer.
She saw something that Babbage didn't.
Babbage was totally obsessed with mathematics.
He was building a machine to do mathematics on, Lovelies said.
You could do more than mathematics on this machine and justice.
You do.
Everyone in this room is pretty.
Got a computer on them right now because I got a phone.
If you go into that phone, every single thing in that phone or computer or anything, any other competing device is mathematics.
All numbers at the bottom, whether it's video or text or music or voice, it's all numbers is all underlying it.
Mathematical functions happening and lovely, say, Just because you're doing mathematical functions and symbols doesn't mean this things can't represent other things in the real world, such as music.
This was the huge leap because Babbage is, they're saying we could compute is amazing functions and print out tables of numbers and draw graphs and Lovelace there, she says, Look, this thing could even compose music if you told it a representation of music numerically.
So this is what I call love.
Laters leak.
When you say she's a programmer, she did do some.
But the real thing is to have said the future is going to be much, much more than this now, 100 years later, this guy comes along Alan, cheering on day in 1936 and invents the computer all over again.
Now, of course, Babbage's machine was entirely mechanical.
Showings machine was entirely theoretical.
Both of these guys were coming from a mathematical perspective, but Cheering told us something very important.
He just laid down the mathematical foundations for computer science and said, It doesn't matter how you make a computer.
It doesn't matter if your computer's mechanical like savages Waas or Elektronik like computers are today.
Or perhaps in the future cells or, again, mechanical again.
Once we get into nanotechnology, we could go back to Babbage's machine and just make it tiny.
All those things are computers.
There is a sense, a computing essence.
This is called the Church Turing Thesis and so suddenly you get this link where you say this thing Babbage of built really was a computer.
In fact, it was capable of doing everything we do today with computers only really slowly.
To give you an idea of how slowly I had about one K of memory, Um, it used punch cards which were being fed in on it ran about 10,000 times slower than the first ZX 81 did have a ram pack.
You could add all a lot of extra memory if you wanted to.
So where does that bring us today?
So this is their plans.
Over in Swindon the Science Museum archive there are hundreds of plans and thousands of pages of notes written by Charles Babbage about this analytical engine.
One of those is a set of plans that we call Plan 28 and that is also the name of a charity that I started with.
Doron swayed, who was the curator of computing Science Museum and also the person who drove the project to build difference engine.
And our plan is to build it here in South Kensington.
We will build the analytical engine.
The project has a number of parts to it.
One was the scanning of Babbage's archive that's being done.
The second is now the study of all of those plans to determine what to build.
The third part is a computer simulation off that machine, from the last part is to physically build it at the science Museum.
When it's built, you'll finally be able to understand how a computer works cause rather than a tiny chip in front of you.
But a look at this humongous thing and say are I see the memory operating.
I see the CPU operating.
I hear it operating.
I probably smell it operating, but in between that we're gonna do a simulation.
Babbage himself wrote that.
He said, as soon as the analytical engine exists, it will surely guide the future course of science because he never built it because he was always fiddling with new plans.
But when it did get built, of course, in the 19 forties, everything changed.
I'll just give you a little taste of what it looks like in motion with a video which shows just one part of the CPU mechanism working that is just three sets of dogs and it's gonna add.
This is the adding mechanism in action.
So you imagine this gigantic machine.
So give me five years before the 20 thirties happen.
We'll have it.
Thank you very much.


The greatest machine that never was - John Graham-Cumming

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林宜悉 2020 年 7 月 3 日 に公開
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