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  • MALE SPEAKER: I would like to introduce Veronica Liesaputra,

  • who is from the University of Waikato.

  • She is Ian Witten's student there.

  • She is working under a Google scholarship to study ebook

  • user interfaces, and she's going to present some work

  • that she just presented at the joint

  • conference on digital libraries.

  • Veronica?

  • VERONICA LIESAPUTRA: First of all, I want to say thank you

  • for giving me the opportunity to talk about my PhD project,

  • which focuses on simulating electronic documents using the

  • book metaphor.

  • For today's talk, I'm going to explain about how to turn the

  • pages of an electronic book.

  • The outline of my talk will be first, I'm going to explain

  • about the book metaphor, the evolution of the book, users

  • reading behavior, and techniques

  • to model page turning.

  • Then I will show you my book part of example that uses one

  • of these page turning mechanisms, and I will

  • summarize my talk.

  • So it will be a very short talk.

  • There are actually lots of debates on the

  • use of the book metaphor.

  • Some people believe that it is useful using the book

  • metaphor, because people are already familiar and have

  • experience with it.

  • But others believe that it's actually useless using the

  • book metaphor.

  • It actually limits the potential of

  • an electronic book.

  • It may even lead to awkward design.

  • They believe it actually doesn't matter how the new

  • representation looks like.

  • Once users are familiar with it, they will no longer rely

  • on the book metaphor.

  • And so they're saying, don't judge a book by its cover,

  • judge it by its content.

  • And those experts believe that only the text is important.

  • The physical properties of the document don't matter at all.

  • However this is not how humans are trained.

  • Our human brains are already trained unconsciously to use

  • the physical properties of the documents to tell us about the

  • document's age, usage and quality.

  • Using the right text format is important, because it

  • essentially tells how the knowledge is organized and

  • presented, which in turn affects how you serve reading

  • comprehensions and reading experience.

  • Through the 4,000 years of its history, the document format

  • has gone through a series of changes.

  • The main motivation for this change is to find a format

  • that is economical, portable and user friendly.

  • Surprisingly, we can also find the same evolution in the

  • development of the electronic document formats.

  • So the three main document formats are scrolls,

  • concertinas and the codices.

  • In the scroll format, a document is represented in a

  • long file, pages.

  • And the user needs to use--

  • so if it's electronic, then you have web pages.

  • The users have to use the scroll bars to basically roll

  • and unroll documents to search for a passage.

  • Another example of the scroll format is the

  • teletype roll paper.

  • The second format is the concertinas.

  • This is the intermediate format

  • between scrolls and codices.

  • It was preferred over scrolls, because when it is folded, it

  • resembles a book.

  • You can randomly access any page.

  • An unfolded concertina is essentially a scroll,

  • providing a backward compatibility.

  • An example of this format are the [UNINTELLIGIBLE] printing

  • papers at every Acrobat Readers and Microsoft Word

  • print preview, where users can either use the scroll bars or

  • the page up and down buttons to go to the next page.

  • A user study shows that for their short documents, users

  • prefer scrolls over the concertina format, because

  • they are already used to using scrolls longer than

  • concertinas.

  • However, for long documents, users actually do not prefer

  • to use scrolls, because they can easily get lost in the

  • flow of information.

  • Just moving the scroll bar slightly can change the screen

  • content completely.

  • That's why they always use page up and down buttons.

  • Where the concertina, although it helps the user gain better

  • understanding of the document's logical structures,

  • they still find it hard to know where they are on the

  • document and the length of the document itself.

  • So that brings me to the last document format, which is the

  • codex format.

  • This is the standard document format.

  • It was preferred over the concertinas, because it uses

  • less material, which means that it's cheaper, it's easier

  • to read and store, and it's portable.

  • And recently, many researchers tried to simulate electronic

  • document using the book metaphor.

  • They found that the user gained a better understanding

  • about the document's logical structures, and also the user

  • already understood the book metaphor, so they knew exactly

  • what to do, without saying, you need to turn the page or

  • something like that.

  • Adding functionality such as annotation, highlighting can

  • increase readers' engagements and fulfillment.

  • So I guess everyone has already seen this video.

  • So I'm just going to skip it.

  • Yes, or do you want to watch it?

  • OK, sure.

  • [VIDEO PLAYBACK]

  • [END VIDEO PLAYBACK]

  • VERONICA LIESAPUTRA: As you can see, the page turning is

  • the important application in a book.

  • A user study done by Katherine Marshall actually shows that

  • page turning is actually a combination of a complex

  • [UNINTELLIGIBLE]

  • applications, as I will show you in this series of

  • photographs.

  • Here we have a girl reading her favorite magazine.

  • And as you can see, she's already anticipating herself

  • to turn the page, while she's still reading the first page.

  • And then she partially turned the page.

  • And she said that it's because she wanted to look ahead, the

  • content of the next two pages.

  • She wanted to get more context of what's

  • happening with the articles.

  • Once she fully turned the page, she made the magazine

  • into a double page display.

  • Again she said that she wanted to get an overview of how long

  • it is the article going to go for and about the context that

  • she's going to read.

  • And when she's satisfied with that, she folds the magazine

  • into a one page spread, and then focuses herself reading

  • on the left page.

  • So while reading, users are always anticipating themselves

  • to turn the page.

  • The same behavior also can be seen when they're reading an

  • electronic document or using an electronic book reader.

  • They always place their mouse or their scroll bars near the

  • navigational buttons or the scrollers.

  • Although clicking a navigational button is

  • effective, users actually briefly lose contact with the

  • text, which means that they cannot subtly look ahead at

  • the content of what is the next page while they're still

  • reading the first page.

  • They always just have to go to the next page.

  • There's no middle bit.

  • This is why simulating a realistic

  • page turning is important.

  • When we want to simulate a realistic page turning, we

  • always have a trade-off between the

  • accuracy and the speed.

  • If you want our page turning to look as realistic as

  • possible, then it will be complex to compute, which

  • means that it slow to render.

  • There are two types of simulation.

  • Geometric simulations and physical simulations.

  • In the geometric simulation, the appearance of the page is

  • defined by a set of mathematical equations, which

  • means that it is simple and fast to compute, but it may

  • not be accurate and it's also restrictive.

  • The second simulation is the physical stimulation.

  • In this simulation, the appearance of the paper is

  • defined by the material properties of the paper and

  • the forces that we apply to the paper, which means that

  • the simulation is accurate and flexible, but it is complex

  • and slow to compute.

  • When we want to create realistic page turning, we

  • want to find a model that not only looks sufficiently

  • realistic, but it has also to be scalable to handle large

  • page counts and computable in real time.

  • AUDIENCE: What does accurate mean here?

  • VERONICA LIESAPUTRA: It means it looks realistic, looks like

  • a real page.

  • For this step, I'm going to explain about three page

  • turning techniques that I have investigated and implemented

  • during six months of my PhD project.

  • The peeling method, particle method, and the

  • finite element method.

  • But before I start explaining about the page turning models

  • that I implemented, I'll explain about the British

  • Library Turning the Pages project, because this is the

  • project that inspired me to actually find my own page

  • turning techniques.

  • So in the British Library Turning the Pages project,

  • readers sit on a touch screen display, a big

  • touch screen display.

  • And they can basically, metaphorically grab the corner

  • of the page and swipe their finger across the display to

  • turn the page.

  • And as you can see, that the [UNINTELLIGIBLE] is not three

  • dimensional and the binding moves in sympathy to where

  • they are when they turn it.

  • And I will show you a video of their promotional reel.

  • [VIDEO PLAYBACK]

  • -For many years, people have been asking to see more pages

  • than we can display in the exhibition galleries.

  • More access to those important books.

  • The British Library is committed to a digitization

  • program that will make our collections available to the

  • widest possible audience.

  • What Windows Vista allows us to do is deliver some of those

  • programs in very creative ways.

  • We're going to make the Turning the Pages tour kit

  • available to libraries throughout the world.

  • And they can quite simply put their collections on line.

  • Turning the Pages seems to appeal to everyone, and we've

  • had positive feedback from people from all over the

  • world, saying that this is exactly what the Internet

  • should be used for.

  • [END VIDEO PLAYBACK]

  • VERONICA LIESAPUTRA: So as you can see that Microsoft is

  • actually supporting this project at the moment.

  • And the way this simulation works is actually by taking

  • photographs at each intermediate page turn point.

  • So for example, if you have the book and you want to turn

  • this page, then they take a photograph on this,

  • this, this and this.

  • And essentially, what is shown to the user is not the

  • computer model of the book, but it's just a series of

  • images, which means that the turning part is predefined.

  • So the cost of creating your book into this Turning the

  • Pages book, if you have a thick book, then it's $200 US.

  • If it's a thin book, it's $2,000 US.

  • And you might think that that sounds reasonable, a thick

  • book, $200, but it's actually per page.

  • So Microsoft is willing to pay about $10,000

  • for a 500 page book.

  • So for my presentation, which is 32 pages, then it will cost

  • me $64,000.

  • And I don't have much money like Microsoft.

  • So I decided to create my own page turning models.

  • The first method is the peeling method.

  • This is the example of the geometric simulation method.

  • In this peeling method, the paper is

  • divided into three sections.

  • The visible part of the page being termed the green bit,

  • the crisp polygon, and the refill area underneath the

  • page being turned.

  • Because we ignore the translation in exact

  • directions, meaning that the crease polygon is the exact

  • reflection of the refill polygon, and it can be

  • computed by drawing a line that is from any clear

  • bisector to the line CP.

  • Because in this method we actually computed the model of

  • the book, that means that the turning part is not

  • predefined, which means that I can actually turn the corner

  • to the place like whatever.

  • It's not just one way, like in the British Library Turning

  • the Pages project.

  • However, because this is a geometric simulation model,

  • that means that for each different type of paper, I

  • have to create a new set of mathematical equations.

  • So for flexible paper, we can use peeling--