字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント you're watching. Chalk and Talk by Brian Roads Brought to You by business English pod dot com Let me explain how the causes of works notice my three examples. I have the verb get. I have the verb have and the verb make all in the simple past. For my examples, those are the three verbs, the cause it have usually takes. Now the causative concept is somebody causes or gets somebody to do something. In other words, they ask, persuade or force. Let's look at number one is their example. John got married to clean up the kitchen. We have the verb got in the simple past. That's our cause. It a verb. So we have somebody gets somebody, and then we have the next part, which is an infinitive with to. So notice how the verb gets works with the positive. John got Mary to clean up the kitchen. Now God has the idea of persuade. So maybe the conversation between John and Mary went like this. John said to marry Hey, if you clean up the kitchen, I'll take you out to dinner tonight, she says. Yeah, OK, sure. Number two is a little bit different, Mary had John Vacuum the carpets. There's are causative, simple past. Mary had John and then here noticed there's no two right there. There's a two there, but there's no to here. So after the verb have in the positive, there's just the base form of the verb or the infinitive without to in this case, notice that there's a to clean up there with infinitive with to Okay, what's the difference between God and had not much number two are Example. Probably has the meaning of John. Asked Mary. He probably said, We're sorry? Mary asked. John. Mary said, OK, John, I'll do that. Could you? I'll do the kitchen. Could you vacuum the house, please? So this one has persuasion in it, and this one is just really an ask. Finally, we get to aren't my example. Number three, with the verb make now make us stronger than these two in that there's a little bit of forcing going on, and this is me talking to Mary and John. I made both of them. This is both Mary and John. Take a break from the house work. I felt they were working too much, and I came into the house and I said, Listen, you to stop now you're working way too hard. Take a break now. No, I don't mean later. I mean now. So there's a little bit of forcing going on with the verb make. Now look how this one works. There's the causes of verb. Simple past. I made both of them. And then after the person's being forced to do it, there is no Tuas. Well, so get is the one with the two and have and make don't have to. So I hope that explains the positive and how it works. Those are the three main verbs that work with the positive in such a fashion. My three examples on the board now are the cause, it of passive. I hope you've looked at the passive video and the positive view, and if you have, you'll understand these a little bit better. Number one. I had my hair cut and my suit dry cleaned. There's that causative verb right there in the simple past. Number two. I got my car repaired and my watch fixed. There's that causative verb as well. Now, with have and get, quite often you are going to do a cause it of passive in this way you have have and then something. And then you have your past participle. You have cut dry, clean, repaired and fixed number one. I had my hair cut by a professional hair cutter or barber hair stylist. I had my suit dry cleaned by a professional dry cleaning establishment. I got my car repaired by a mechanic, and I paid him money and I got my watch fixed by a watchmaker, and I paid him for his services. So quite often have and get in the closet of passive will work have plus whatever else you're having. Your item in this case hair, suit, car and watch. Then the past participle cut dry, clean repair and fixed. You quite often don't need to use the by phrase with these passives because we know it was a professional in all these circumstances. So the examples of number one and number two you have the positive something the past participle, and that's how those two work number three is the verb make. And if you remember correctly from the positive make is the more forceful one, and that's what's happening. In example, number three I was made to write the test again. By who? Probably my teacher. The active of this would be my teacher made me write the test again. So when you take make as a positive and put it into the passive, you have to remember that you have your typical passive construction and then you have the infinitive with to to write. So I was made to write the test again by my teacher. My teacher made me write the test again. That's how the verb makes He or she forced me to do it so once again have and get in the closet of passive work a little bit differently from the verb make in the passive as well.