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  • Chalk and Talk by Brian Roads Brought to You by business English pod dot com Let me explain how the causes of works notice my three examples.

  • I have the verb get.

  • I have the verb have and the verb make all in the simple past.

  • For my examples, those are the three verbs, the cause it have usually takes.

  • Now the causative concept is somebody causes or gets somebody to do something.

  • In other words, they ask, persuade or force.

  • Let's look at number one is their example.

  • John got married to clean up the kitchen.

  • We have the verb got in the simple past.

  • That's our cause.

  • It a verb.

  • So we have somebody gets somebody, and then we have the next part, which is an infinitive with to.

  • So notice how the verb gets works with the positive.

  • John got Mary to clean up the kitchen.

  • Now God has the idea of persuade.

  • So maybe the conversation between John and Mary went like this.

  • John said to marry Hey, if you clean up the kitchen, I'll take you out to dinner tonight, she says.

  • Yeah, OK, sure.

  • Number two is a little bit different, Mary had John Vacuum the carpets.

  • There's are causative, simple past.

  • Mary had John and then here noticed there's no two right there.

  • There's a two there, but there's no to here.

  • So after the verb have in the positive, there's just the base form of the verb or the infinitive without to in this case, notice that there's a to clean up there with infinitive with to Okay, what's the difference between God and had not much number two are Example.

  • Probably has the meaning of John.

  • Asked Mary.

  • He probably said, We're sorry?

  • Mary asked.

  • John.

  • Mary said, OK, John, I'll do that.

  • Could you?

  • I'll do the kitchen.

  • Could you vacuum the house, please?

  • So this one has persuasion in it, and this one is just really an ask.

  • Finally, we get to aren't my example.

  • Number three, with the verb make now make us stronger than these two in that there's a little bit of forcing going on, and this is me talking to Mary and John.

  • I made both of them.

  • This is both Mary and John.

  • Take a break from the house work.

  • I felt they were working too much, and I came into the house and I said, Listen, you to stop now you're working way too hard.

  • Take a break now.

  • No, I don't mean later.

  • I mean now.

  • So there's a little bit of forcing going on with the verb make.

  • Now look how this one works.

  • There's the causes of verb.

  • Simple past.

  • I made both of them.

  • And then after the person's being forced to do it, there is no Tuas.

  • Well, so get is the one with the two and have and make don't have to.

  • So I hope that explains the positive and how it works.

  • Those are the three main verbs that work with the positive in such a fashion.

  • My three examples on the board now are the cause, it of passive.

  • I hope you've looked at the passive video and the positive view, and if you have, you'll understand these a little bit better.

  • Number one.

  • I had my hair cut and my suit dry cleaned.

  • There's that causative verb right there in the simple past.

  • Number two.

  • I got my car repaired and my watch fixed.

  • There's that causative verb as well.

  • Now, with have and get, quite often you are going to do a cause it of passive in this way you have have and then something.

  • And then you have your past participle.

  • You have cut dry, clean, repaired and fixed number one.

  • I had my hair cut by a professional hair cutter or barber hair stylist.

  • I had my suit dry cleaned by a professional dry cleaning establishment.

  • I got my car repaired by a mechanic, and I paid him money and I got my watch fixed by a watchmaker, and I paid him for his services.

  • So quite often have and get in the closet of passive will work have plus whatever else you're having.

  • Your item in this case hair, suit, car and watch.

  • Then the past participle cut dry, clean repair and fixed.

  • You quite often don't need to use the by phrase with these passives because we know it was a professional in all these circumstances.

  • So the examples of number one and number two you have the positive something the past participle, and that's how those two work number three is the verb make.

  • And if you remember correctly from the positive make is the more forceful one, and that's what's happening.

  • In example, number three I was made to write the test again.

  • By who?

  • Probably my teacher.

  • The active of this would be my teacher made me write the test again.

  • So when you take make as a positive and put it into the passive, you have to remember that you have your typical passive construction and then you have the infinitive with to to write.

  • So I was made to write the test again by my teacher.

  • My teacher made me write the test again.

  • That's how the verb makes He or she forced me to do it so once again have and get in the closet of passive work a little bit differently from the verb make in the passive as well.

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A2 初級

上級英文法ESLレッスン - 因果関係 (Advanced English Grammar ESL Lesson - Causative)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日