中級 5080 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
So this is you.
This is a snapshot of what's going on, right now inside every cell of your body.
It's what's happening to your lunch.
So if you look at this, especially you're a biochemistry student
or studying for analysis as a student.
You're probably asking yourself: why?
Why is this so complicated?
And the answer is actually rather elegant.
So the body has to create very important compounds that it doesn't find in nature right now.
So, an example of this would be acetyl-CoA.
Acetyl-CoA is a neurotransmitter and it's also -- well, it's a precursor to a neurotransmitter --
and it is also important in a dozen other reactions.
Now, the body cannot find this by itself in nature so has to create it.
So single celled organisms, and then later multi-cell organism, like us,
have evolved incredibly complex and elegant pathways to make these compounds.
So now you're looking at this and you say, "OK. Why is this important?"
Well, now scientists have found ways of taking advantage of what nature has already evolved
and use it for new uses.
So that's where synthetic biology comes in.
Synthetic biology is using genes as a programming language.
Inserting them in cells,
and having them act like tiny machines to create high value products.
So what's an example of this? So a perfect example is algae.
It's relatively simple compared to us.
And it has, as you can see here, these little green cylinders -- they are chloroplasts.
So chloroplast, as many of you probably know,
they convert solar energy into chemical energy.
So synthetic biologists have been taking that and using it to create interesting products.
So one example of this is carbon dioxide.
As we all know carbon dioxide is an increasing issue in global warning and many other phenomenon.
By engineering algae, we can use solar energy
to convert carbon dioxide into butanol, which is a fuel substitute.
So synthetic biology lets us close the gap,
and make truly sustainable technology by re-harnessing the products of combustion.
So what are some of the major problems affecting us in 21th century?
I've already mention fuel that's obvious; energy,
there's also hunger, health and sustainability.
So in the health sphere,
synthetic biology methods have allowed us to create artemisinin in cheap, and large quantities.
So, artemisinin is an anti-malarial drug
that until recently you could only get by extracting it from a plant.
So it's an incredibly expensive process,
and that meant the drug for malarial patients were very expensive and hard to get to them.
So synthetic biology has already answer one question in terms of artemisinin.
Now in terms of healthier crops I don't mean GMOs.
I mean normal crops with synthetic organisms
that have been created to protect those crops from parasites.
So, co-existing, synergistically with crops.
Algae biofuels I already mentioned, there's a lot of variance in this
- it's a very big space.
And the beauty is: all of these can be engineered to be inherently sustainable.
That's the power of synthetic biology.
So now I want to get a little bit deeper into what we mean.
How does this happen? And why it is so new?
So, it's really the marriage of biology and engineering.
Specifically three major tanents of engineering.
So the standardization of parts,
modeling and testing.
So before that I want to give a testament of power of engineering that we already have.
This is the Burj Khalifa.
So, it's the tallest building, it's in Dubai --
it's one of the tallest buildings -- or the tallest building on the planet.
It's about 2.5 times of Empire State Building.
So this give you an idea that it is immense.
And engineering principles are what allow us to do this.
So, similarly in synthetic biology,
instead of nuts and bolts,
we have chunks of DNA.
So the chunks of DNA essentially you can pop in and out,
standardize chunks of DNA and reuse sequences for different purposes.
So we've standardized DNA, and this is a huge undertaking.
Next, instead of blueprints, we have advanced computer simulations.
So this is an area that's still very much in growth,
and it's going to redefine how we design biological organisms.
And then finally, instead of airplanes and wind tunnels, we have test tubes.
So we can rapidly prototype.
And rapidly prototyping is another big part of testing and iterating and getting this right.
So, now I just told you a little bit of a hint of what it would happen.
But this is Vincent Callebaut's floating buildings.
This is some of the possibilities that are really out there.
So imagine New York City --
it's complicated now -- imagine a 60 foot or 600 feet of floating buildings.
It's crazy.
So, another huge area that's going to explode is personalized medicine.
So synthetic biology finally allows us,
or at least opens a window to creating vaccines and therapies
for your genetic material specifically.
And doing it in a cheap and cost-effective manner.
So, this could redefine how drugs are created and delivered.
So my startup, Mana Health,
we are working in health IT, and that's another area that's really exploding right now.
And where they meet in the future is really,
literally going to redefine what we consider medicine,
and how we treat our health.
So, finally I want to leave you with this thought:
this is a picture, an artist depistion, of what Mars will look like with an atmosphere,
with oceans, and with an ecosystem.
So it looks a lot like Earth.
So it is pretty amazing.
The technology that we're starting to play with right now --
it's of course not quite there yet --
but just scaling it is what's necessary.
The seeds of this technology already exist.
So as alumni, as fellow alumni,
I want to challenge you to think, and ask yourselves:
how can we continue supporting our institution
in these incredible innovations and in this incredible progress.
So that we can transform our world, and create entire new ones.
Thank you.
(Applause)
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

【TEDx】Synthetic biology, a new frontier: Christopher Bradley at TEDxNYU

5080 タグ追加 保存
keep seeing 2014 年 5 月 4 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔