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  • When a person is near a source of radiation, some type of radioactive material, he or she

  • can be exposed to the radiation emitted by this source. However, he or she does not become

  • contaminated.

  • One way to think about exposure is to think about X-rays. When a person has a chest X-ray,

  • he or she is exposed to radiation, but does not become contaminated with radioactive material.

  • A person can reduce his or her exposure to radiation, if he or she is shielded in some

  • ways from the radiation, for example, if the person is behind a concrete wall, or if the

  • radioactive source is inside of a lead container.

  • In order to become contaminated, radioactive material must get on the skin, or clothing,

  • or inside of the body. For example, if radioactive material is incorporated into a dirty bomb,

  • a conventional explosive, such as dynamite, that has been laced with radioactive material,

  • then people could become contaminated when the device is detonated. Radioactive material

  • on the outside of the body is called external contamination. When a person becomes externally

  • contaminated, simply removing the clothing can remove up to 90% of the contamination.

  • Gently washing the skin and the hair can remove most of the remaining contamination.

  • If a person ingests or inhales radioactive material, it can become incorporated in the

  • organs of the body. This is called internal contamination. When a person is internally

  • contaminated, depending on the type of radioactive material with which they were contaminated,

  • certain medications can be administered to speed up the rate at which the radioactive

  • material is eliminated from the body. Such medications include Prussian blue and DTPA.

When a person is near a source of radiation, some type of radioactive material, he or she


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B2 中上級

放射線の原理 - 被ばくと汚染 (Radiation Principles - Exposure vs Contamination)

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    kuoyumei に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日