字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Currently we are printing face shields that are made from a 3D printed orange part here that you're seeing. We're also printing frames that can hold alternative types of material to your face. We also are making ventilator splitters, though I really hope to not have to use these, as well as our primary project which is the respirator full face mask. These are not normal conditions. A lot of what we're doing, we would never dream of doing if it wasn't for a global pandemic. And people have to remember that this is a serious shot in the dark at making a huge difference that we would never even undertake under a normal circumstance. Right as the COVID crisis was unfolding one of my nurse friends was giving me updates. She was just every day "We don't have any PPE. We don't have masks." I kept hearing all these stories and so here we are at this crossroads of do I just say I'm sorry to hear that or do we do something? In response to urgent calls, a network of makers and doctors have turned to 3D printers. And this effort has inspired a flood of new designs. So the way the maker community works is all the projects are iterative. You start with a little seed of an idea and then you build on it and then someone else takes it and builds on it. I started digging in and trying to figure out what is the best design and how do we create some sort of documentation that will allow medical practitioners and people like you and me who want to go to the grocery store to feel at least a little bit safe with some sort of mask that we believe is better than a tee shirt and probably not as good as an N95. It became abundantly clear that there was a lot of misinformation out there like how do you disinfect them? What filter material to use? How do you fit them to your face? And so my work was to build a guide protocol to answer all those questions. But helping out is hard when it comes to medical equipment because you know it has to work. It's not just as easy as printing a mask and calling it a day. There's so many little tests that you need to do to make sure that you're not making a mask that will just give you a false sense of security and that was why I created the protocol. Like many other makers, Kosta's designs are all open source. That is one of the reasons, along with rapid prototyping and personalization, that 3D printing has become such a unique tool during this pandemic. What we're seeing now is the inclusion of these miniature printing factories closer to the places that need them most - hospitals. We'll be printing a mask, a cover, putting filters in the cover and putting straps on. We'll go through it from the start right now. What you want is a piece that's going to fit flat right inside of this. You could double up, but we're using one layer and gluing it in as a droplet filter. So we're gonna take these two and fit in the nose slot. Push in until it clicks. I have the same core people starting to show up every day to make a difference even after work. They'll work all day in ICU from 5:00 AM to 5:00 PM, and then they'll come in and put in five hours assembling masks. Right now we're just getting it vetted internally and it is going to be a hospital by hospital decision of what to wear. Despite all of the upsides that 3D printing offers, for a mask to be effective, it needs to be vetted and tested. These DIY masks are recommended to use at your own discretion. People assume that just because a doctor is coming up with an idea, that this is tested and fully approved. They are not equivalent. I'm a doctor at work, I'm a hobbyist and designer on the side. I am combining them, but I am not a professional designer. These are just the best shot at something that's better than a scarf. Dr. Wiles and Kosta are part of a distributed network of makers in nearly every city. Many of their masks are addressing local needs and, at the moment, aren't scaled up on a national level. Because a 3D printed mask is a lot more complicated than it looks. There's a lot of good that can come from those products. It's just really the tough question of, “Can we make them in a safe form and fashion, and will they behave as intended? The complexity is in a couple of factors that influence design. So when you say N95, what that relates onto is the efficiency that which the filter is able to remove that particulate. The other is, is that the device needs to conform to the shape of your face because you need to create a seal in order to actually promote the air that you're breathing in to go through the filter. You don't want it to go through the side of the mask. America Makes is responding to the influx of designs coming from the 3D printing community with the NIH 3D Print Exchange to address open questions about safety, fit, and efficacy. Folks will put their data on there, upload their designs, and then from there through the partnerships that we've established, those designs are assessed. Those partnerships include the VA and FDA - they'll clinically review the designs as well as offer feedback on the regulations surrounding medical devices. Being able to make in some instances these fairly complex devices, I mean that's where I think the innovation is. It is very exciting to see the evolution of it, to see the pace at which it occurred, and to see that it's going for the right type of purpose. Now that we have these designs that have been vetted in this clinical setting, we make the medical care provider community aware that this catalog of devices exists. A lot of this has been trial and error. You create, create, create, you collaborate with other people. Build, build, build as fast as possible. And then test, test, test, test again. And try to break it. And what you end up with is something that's robust and that can potentially do the job, until it can't do the job. And then, go back and build it again. Being both a doctor and a maker is hard because I am getting pulled in multiple directions. I was just up in the ICU checking on how people are doing, distributing some face shields. Our actual goal here is that no one will ever have to use these masks. These are intended to be stockpiled at locations that fear a total shortage, as a last resort if it ever comes to that. It's been a wonderful opportunity to be able to put the technology and skills and the people that I know, put it all to work to make something that can be helpful to other people. That's my only goal is just to be a little helpful.