Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Over a million people are killed each year in disasters.

    年間100万人以上が 災害で死亡します

  • Two and a half million people will be permanently disabled or displaced,

    250万人が回復不能の障害を負ったり 住む場所を失ったりします

  • and the communities will take 20 to 30 years to recover


  • and billions of economic losses.


  • If you can reduce the initial response by one day,


  • you can reduce the overall recovery


  • by a thousand days, or three years.

    1,000日 つまり3年も短縮できます

  • See how that works?


  • If the initial responders can get in, save lives,

    第1陣が現地入りして 人命救助をし

  • mitigate whatever flooding danger there is,

    洪水の危険性などを緩和する ことさえできれば

  • that means the other groups can get in

    その後 現地入りする人たちの仕事は

  • to restore the water, the roads, the electricity,

    水道、道路、電気の復旧 ということになります

  • which means then the construction people, the insurance agents,

    従って 建設業や 保険会社の社員も

  • all of them can get in to rebuild the houses,

    現地入りして 家屋を再建できるので

  • which then means you can restore the economy,


  • and maybe even make it better and more resilient to the next disaster.

    また 次の被災時に より迅速な 復興対応ができるかもしれません

  • A major insurance company told me


  • that if they can get a homeowner's claim processed one day earlier,

    保険会社が世帯主の請求を 1日早く処理できれば

  • it'll make a difference of six months


  • in that person getting their home repaired.


  • And that's why I do disaster robotics --

    ですから私は 災害ロボット工学を研究しています

  • because robots can make a disaster go away faster.

    ロボットを使えば すばやく災害を処理できるからです

  • Now, you've already seen a couple of these.

    さて この2台のロボットは

  • These are the UAVs.


  • These are two types of UAVs:


  • a rotorcraft, or hummingbird;


  • a fixed-wing, a hawk.


  • And they're used extensively since 2005 --

    2005年のハリケーン・カトリーナ以降 広範囲で

  • Hurricane Katrina.


  • Let me show you how this hummingbird, this rotorcraft, works.

    回転翼機のハミングバードの 動きをご覧に入れましょう

  • Fantastic for structural engineers.

    構造工学技術者にとっては 最高のロボットですよね

  • Being able to see damage from angles you can't get from binoculars on the ground

    地上の双眼鏡や 衛星などの飛行物体の 高角度の画像では

  • or from a satellite image,


  • or anything flying at a higher angle.


  • But it's not just structural engineers and insurance people who need this.

    構造工学技術者や保険業者でなくても 状況把握は必要です

  • You've got things like this fixed-wing, this hawk.

    このホークのような 固定翼機もあります

  • Now, this hawk can be used for geospatial surveys.

    さて このホークは地理空間の調査に 使えます

  • That's where you're pulling imagery together

    地理空間調査では 画像を集めて

  • and getting 3D reconstruction.


  • We used both of these at the Oso mudslides up in Washington State,

    ワシントン州オソの土砂災害では 両方の機種が使用されました

  • because the big problem


  • was geospatial and hydrological understanding of the disaster --

    地理空間的、水文学的に 災害状況を把握することが

  • not the search and rescue.


  • The search and rescue teams had it under control

    捜索救援チームは現地状況を コントロール下に置き

  • and knew what they were doing.


  • The bigger problem was that river and mudslide might wipe them out

    もっと大きな問題だったのは 二次災害により隊員たちが

  • and flood the responders.


  • And not only was it challenging to the responders and property damage,

    問題は隊員の怪我や 物的損害だけでなく

  • it's also putting at risk the future of salmon fishing

    ワシントン州の被災地での サケ釣りの将来も

  • along that part of Washington State.


  • So they needed to understand what was going on.

    そのため 現状を 理解する必要がありました

  • In seven hours, going from Arlington,

    7時間のうちに アーリントンの

  • driving from the Incident Command Post to the site, flying the UAVs,

    現場指揮所から被災地へ車を走らせ UAVを飛ばして

  • processing the data, driving back to Arlington command post --

    データを処理し アーリントンの指令所に戻りました

  • seven hours.


  • We gave them in seven hours data that they could take


  • only two to three days to get any other way --


  • and at higher resolution.

    しかも より鮮明な高解像度です

  • It's a game changer.


  • And don't just think about the UAVs.


  • I mean, they are sexy -- but remember,

    確かに UAVについ目が行くのはわかりますけどね

  • 80 percent of the world's population lives by water,

    世界の人口の8割が 水辺で暮らしているのです

  • and that means our critical infrastructure is underwater --

    つまり 橋などの 重要なインフラが

  • the parts that we can't get to, like the bridges and things like that.

    水没して 人間が立ち入れなくなるのです

  • And that's why we have unmanned marine vehicles,

    そのため 無人水中機(UMV)を使うのです

  • one type of which you've already met, which is SARbot, a square dolphin.

    ご覧のものは SARbotで 四角いドルフィンです

  • It goes underwater and uses sonar.

    水中に潜り ソナー(超音波探信儀)を使います

  • Well, why are marine vehicles so important

    なぜ無人水中機が 重要なのでしょうか?

  • and why are they very, very important?


  • They get overlooked.


  • Think about the Japanese tsunami --

    日本の津波について 考えてみましょう

  • 400 miles of coastland totally devastated,

    約650kmの海岸線が 壊滅的な被害を受けました

  • twice the amount of coastland devastated by Hurricane Katrina in the United States.

    アメリカのハリケーン・カトリーナによる 沿岸被害の2倍です

  • You're talking about your bridges, your pipelines, your ports -- wiped out.

    橋、パイプライン、港などが 破壊されたらどうなるのか?

  • And if you don't have a port,


  • you don't have a way to get in enough relief supplies

    被災者を支援する 十分な救援物資を受け取る

  • to support a population.


  • That was a huge problem at the Haiti earthquake.

    ハイチの地震では それが大問題となりました

  • So we need marine vehicles.

    だから UMVが要るのです

  • Now, let's look at a viewpoint from the SARbot

    SARbotが 何を捉えているのかを

  • of what they were seeing.


  • We were working on a fishing port.


  • We were able to reopen that fishing port, using her sonar, in four hours.

    SARbotのソナーを使って 4時間で 漁港を再開できました

  • That fishing port was told it was going to be six months


  • before they could get a manual team of divers in,


  • and it was going to take the divers two weeks.

    さらに2週間の潜水作業がかかると 言われていました

  • They were going to miss the fall fishing season,


  • which was the major economy for that part, which is kind of like their Cape Cod.

    秋の出漁期を逃してしまいます アメリカならケープコッドのような場所です

  • UMVs, very important.

    だから UMVは大変重要なのです

  • But you know, all the robots I've shown you have been small,

    お見せしたロボットが すべて小さいのは

  • and that's because robots don't do things that people do.


  • They go places people can't go.


  • And a great example of that is Bujold.


  • Unmanned ground vehicles are particularly small,

    無人地上探索機は 特に小さいのです

  • so Bujold --


  • (Laughter)


  • Say hello to Bujold.


  • (Laughter)


  • Bujold was used extensively at the World Trade Center

    ブジョルドは世界貿易センターで 広範囲に使われ

  • to go through Towers 1, 2 and 4.


  • You're climbing into the rubble, rappelling down, going deep in spaces.

    瓦礫を登ったり懸垂下降をしたり 隙間の奥に進んで行きます

  • And just to see the World Trade Center from Bujold's viewpoint, look at this.

    ブジョルドの視線での 世界貿易センターです

  • You're talking about a disaster where you can't fit a person or a dog --

    人間や犬が入れないような 被災地で活躍するのです

  • and it's on fire.

    しかも 火災が起きています

  • The only hope of getting to a survivor way in the basement,

    地下の生存者の元にたどり着く 希望がただ1つあるとしたら

  • you have to go through things that are on fire.

    火の中をかいくぐって 捜さねばなりません

  • It was so hot, on one of the robots, the tracks began to melt and come off.

    熱さのあまり 1台のロボットの 車輪が溶けて外れました

  • Robots don't replace people or dogs,

    ロボットは人間や犬 ハチドリや鷹

  • or hummingbirds or hawks or dolphins.


  • They do things new.


  • They assist the responders, the experts, in new and innovative ways.

    新しい画期的な方法で 隊員や専門家をサポートするのです

  • The biggest problem is not making the robots smaller, though.

    最大の問題は ロボットをより小さく作ることでも

  • It's not making them more heat-resistant.

    耐熱性の向上や センサーの増設でもなく

  • It's not making more sensors.

    耐熱性の向上や センサーの増設でもなく

  • The biggest problem is the data, the informatics,

    最大の問題はデータ つまり情報科学なのです

  • because these people need to get the right data at the right time.

    適切な時間に適切なデータを得る 必要があるからです

  • So wouldn't it be great if we could have experts immediately access the robots

    専門家が現場に到着するまでの時間を待たず 専門家が直接ロボットに

  • without having to waste any time of driving to the site,

    アクセスできたら 素晴らしくありませんか?

  • so whoever's there, use their robots over the Internet.

    現場にいる人が使えたら 素晴らしくありませんか?

  • Well, let's think about that.


  • Let's think about a chemical train derailment in a rural county.

    田舎で化学薬品を積んだ列車の 脱線事故があったとしましょう

  • What are the odds that the experts, your chemical engineer,

    UAVを所有している国の 専門家、化学技術者

  • your railroad transportation engineers,


  • have been trained on whatever UAV that particular county happens to have?

    UAVの訓練を受けている者の 割合はどのくらいでしょうか?

  • Probably, like, none.


  • So we're using these kinds of interfaces

    だから このようなインターフェースで

  • to allow people to use the robots without knowing what robot they're using,

    ロボットの種類が分からなくても ロボットを使っていてもいなくても

  • or even if they're using a robot or not.


  • What the robots give you, what they give the experts, is data.

    ロボットが皆さんや専門家に 提供するのはデータです

  • The problem becomes: who gets what data when?


  • One thing to do is to ship all the information to everybody

    たとえば あらゆる情報を 集めて皆で共有して

  • and let them sort it out.


  • Well, the problem with that is it overwhelms the networks,

    ただし それだと問題はネットワークが 負荷に耐えられず

  • and worse yet, it overwhelms the cognitive abilities

    さらに悪いことに 状況を一変させる決断をするのに

  • of each of the people trying to get that one nugget of information

    決断をするために必要となる情報が 一塊になってしまうと

  • they need to make the decision that's going to make the difference.

    それを受け止めようとする人間1人ひとりの 認識能力を越えてしまいます

  • So we need to think about those kinds of challenges.

    だから そういう難題について 考える必要があるのです

  • So it's the data.

    だから データなのです

  • Going back to the World Trade Center,


  • we tried to solve that problem by just recording the data from Bujold

    ブジョルドが瓦礫の奥に入った時の データだけを記録することで

  • only when she was deep in the rubble,


  • because that's what the USAR team said they wanted.

    それが米陸軍予備役のチームの 求めるデータだったからです

  • What we didn't know at the time


  • was that the civil engineers would have loved,

    土木技術者だったら 瓦礫の奥に辿りつくまでの

  • needed the data as we recorded the box beams, the serial numbers,

    箱型梁、シリアルナンバー、採取場所 などのデータに

  • the locations, as we went into the rubble.

    興味を持ち 必要としたかも知れません

  • We lost valuable data.


  • So the challenge is getting all the data


  • and getting it to the right people.


  • Now, here's another reason.


  • We've learned that some buildings --

    その時分かったのですが いくつかの施設

  • things like schools, hospitals, city halls --


  • get inspected four times by different agencies


  • throughout the response phases.


  • Now, we're looking, if we can get the data from the robots to share,

    ロボットが収集したデータを 共有すれば

  • not only can we do things like compress that sequence of phases


  • to shorten the response time,


  • but now we can begin to do the response in parallel.


  • Everybody can see the data.


  • We can shorten it that way.


  • So really, "disaster robotics" is a misnomer.

    だから「災害ロボット工学」 というのは誤称です

  • It's not about the robots.


  • It's about the data.


  • (Applause)


  • So my challenge to you:


  • the next time you hear about a disaster,

    次に 災害のニュースを見るとき

  • look for the robots.


  • They may be underground, they may be underwater,


  • they may be in the sky,


  • but they should be there.


  • Look for the robots,


  • because robots are coming to the rescue.


  • (Applause)


Over a million people are killed each year in disasters.

年間100万人以上が 災害で死亡します


動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 TED ロボット データ 災害 水中 無人

災害後に救助に来たロボットたち|ロビン・マーフィー|TED Talks (These Robots Come to the Rescue after a Disaster | Robin Murphy | TED Talks)

  • 216 9
    郭璧如 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日