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  • I guess all of you have a smartphone or an iPhone,

  • and this morning, probably you checked on the weather,

  • if its going to be rainy to carry your umbrella,

  • if it is going to be sunny to use your sunglasses,

  • or if it is going to be cold to have an extra coat.

  • It's going to give you, sometime, good information and sometime not.

  • Let me tell you,

  • my best app is my grandmother.

  • (Laughter)

  • She's called Mamadda.

  • She can tell you not only today's weather

  • but she can predict the next 12 months,

  • if it's going to be a good rain season or not.

  • She can tell you just by observing her environment,

  • by observing the wind direction,

  • the cloud position,

  • the bird migration,

  • the size of fruits,

  • the plant flowers.

  • She can tell you by observing the behavior of her own cattle.

  • That's how she knows better the weather and the ecosystem

  • that she's living in.

  • I'm coming from a pastoralist community

  • who are cattle herders.

  • We are nomadic.

  • We move from one place to another one

  • to find water and pasture.

  • We can move up to a thousand kilometers, the size of California, within one year.

  • And this life helps us to live in harmony with our ecosystem.

  • We understand each other.

  • For us, the nature is our supermarket,

  • where we can collect our food,

  • our water.

  • It's our pharmacy where we can collect our medicinal plants.

  • But it's our school,

  • where we can learn better how to protect it

  • and how it can give us back what we need.

  • But with the climate change impact,

  • we are experiencing a different impact.

  • In my community,

  • we have one of the top five fresh waters in Africa.

  • It's Lake Chad.

  • When my mother was born,

  • Lake Chad used to be about 25,000 kilometers square of water.

  • When I was born, 30 years ago, it was 10,000 kilometers square.

  • And actually now,

  • it's about 1,200 kilometers square of water.

  • Ninety percent of this water just evaporated, disappeared.

  • And you have more than 40 million people

  • living around this lake and depending on it.

  • They are pastoralists.

  • They are fishermen.

  • And they are farmers.

  • They do not depend on the end of the month's salary.

  • They depend on the rainfall.

  • They depend on the crops that are growing

  • or the pasture for their cattle.

  • The shrinking resources,

  • you have many communities that are fighting to get access.

  • The first come is the first served.

  • The second have to fight unto death.

  • So climate change is impacting our environment

  • by changing our social life,

  • because the role of man and woman in this region, it's different.

  • Man is supposed to feed his family,

  • take care of his community,

  • and if he cannot do that,

  • his dignity is under threat.

  • He cannot do anything else to pay it back.

  • So climate change takes our men far away from us.

  • That is the migration.

  • They can migrate to a big city where they can stay for six or 12 months,

  • where they get a job, they can send back money.

  • If they didn't get it,

  • they have to jump into the Mediterranean

  • and migrate to Europe.

  • Some of them die there, but none of them stop going.

  • Of course, it's sad for the hosting country,

  • who are developed countries,

  • who have to adapt to host the migrants coming.

  • But how about those who are left behind,

  • the women and the children who have to play the role of men,

  • the role of women,

  • who have to take care of the security,

  • of the food, of the health of the entire family,

  • children and old people?

  • So those women for me, they are my heroes,

  • because they are innovators, they are solution makers,

  • they are changing the little of the resources

  • into the big for the community.

  • So those are my people.

  • So we use our indigenous people's traditional knowledge

  • to get better resilience to what we need to survive.

  • Our knowledge is not only for our communities.

  • It's to share with each and others who are living with us.

  • And indigenous peoples around the world

  • are saving 80 percent of the world's biodiversity.

  • That's the scientists who say that.

  • Indigenous peoples in the Amazon,

  • you can find the most diverse ecosystem, better than the national park.

  • The indigenous peoples from the Pacific,

  • the grandma and the grandpa,

  • they know where to get food after the hurricane hits them.

  • So the knowledge that our peoples know

  • is helping us to survive and helping other peoples also to survive

  • the climate change impact.

  • The world is losing.

  • We lost already 60 percent of the species,

  • and it's increasing every day.

  • So one day, I took a scientist to my community.

  • I said, you are giving the good weather information through the TV and radio,

  • but how about coming to my people?

  • And then they come,

  • they sit around,

  • and suddenly, as we are nomadic, we just start packing our stuff,

  • and then they say, like, "Are we moving?"

  • I'm like, "No, we are not moving. It's going to rain."

  • And they're like, "Oh, there's no cloud. How do you know it's going to rain?"

  • We're like, "Yeah, it's going to rain." We pack our stuff.

  • Suddenly, heavy rain starts coming,

  • and we are seeing the scientist running around, hiding under trees

  • and protecting their stuff.

  • We already packed ours.

  • (Laughter)

  • After the end of the rain, the serious discussion starts.

  • They say, "How do you know that it's going to rain?"

  • We say, "Well, the old woman observed the insects

  • taking the eggs inside their homes,

  • and while the insect cannot talk or watch TV,

  • they know how to predict to protect their generations,

  • how to protect their food.

  • So for us it's the sign that it's going to rain

  • in at maximum a couple of hours."

  • And then they say,

  • well, we do have knowledge,

  • but we do not combine ecological knowledge and weather knowledge all together.

  • So that's how I started working

  • with meteorological scientists and my communities

  • to give better information to get peoples adapted to climate change.

  • I think, if we put together all the knowledge systems that we have --

  • science, technology,

  • traditional knowledge --

  • we can give the best of us to protect our peoples,

  • to protect our planet,

  • to restore the ecosystem that we are losing.

  • I did that in another way, also.

  • I used a tool that I really love a lot.

  • It's called a 3D participatory mapping:

  • participatory, because it can bring women, men,

  • youth, elders,

  • all the intergenerational peoples.

  • Then they use science-based knowledge,

  • and the community comes together, they build this map,

  • they figure out all the knowledge that we have

  • about where is our sacred forest, where is our water point,

  • where is our corridor,

  • where is the place that we move during each season.

  • And these tools are amazing, because it's building capacity of women,

  • because in our communities

  • women and men cannot sit together.

  • Men talk always, women just sitting there,

  • but in the back.

  • They are not there to take any decision.

  • So after the men figure out all the knowledge,

  • we say, well, you call the women, "Come and have a look."

  • They say, "Yes, sure,"

  • because they've already done the first work.

  • (Laughter)

  • When the women come,

  • and they look at the map, they're like, "Mm, no."

  • (Laughter)

  • "This is wrong.

  • Here's where I collect the medicine. Here's where I collect the food.

  • Here's where I collect --"

  • So we changed the knowledge in the map,

  • and we called the men.

  • Well, they think about what women say.

  • All of them shaking their heads.

  • "They are right. They are right.

  • They are right."

  • So that's how we build the capacity of the women

  • in giving them a voice

  • in this 3D participatory mapping,

  • so women get the detailed knowledge

  • that can help the community to adapt.

  • And man have the bigger picture knowledge.

  • So when we put it together,

  • this map helps them to discuss

  • but to mitigate the conflict between the communities

  • to access the resources,

  • to share better these resources,

  • to restore it

  • and to manage it for the long term.

  • Our knowledge is very useful.

  • Indigenous peoples' knowledge

  • are very crucial for our planet.

  • It's crucial for all the peoples.

  • Science knowledge was discovered 200 years ago,

  • technology 100 years ago,

  • but indigenous peoples' knowledge, it's thousands of years ago.

  • So why we cannot put all of these together,

  • combine those three knowledges

  • and give the better resilience

  • to the peoples who are getting the impact of climate change?

  • And now it's not only the developing countries.

  • It's the developed countries also.

  • We saw the hurricane. We saw the flood around all the places.

  • We saw the fire, even here in California.

  • So we need all this knowledge to come together.

  • We need the people in the center.

  • And we need the decision makers to change,

  • scientists tell them,

  • and we tell them,

  • and we do have this knowledge.

  • We have 10 years to change it.

  • Ten years is nothing,

  • so we need to act all together

  • and we need to act right now.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

I guess all of you have a smartphone or an iPhone,

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先住民族の知識と科学が気候変動を解決するために出会う|ヒンドゥ・オウマロウ・イブラヒム (Indigenous knowledge meets science to solve climate change | Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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