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  • In 1944, 11 years before her fateful decision on a Montgomery Bus,

  • Rosa Parks was investigating a vicious crime.

  • As an emissary for the National Association

  • for the Advancement of Colored People,

  • she had traveled to rural Alabama to meet with Recy Taylor,

  • a young woman who had been sexually assaulted by six white men.

  • It would be difficult enough to convince an Alabama court

  • that even one of these men was guilty,

  • but Rosa was undeterred.

  • She formed a committee to defend Recy in court,

  • flooding the media with testimony

  • and sparking protests throughout the South.

  • When a jury failed to indict the attackers,

  • Parks demanded the governor assemble a new grand jury.

  • She wrote, “I know that you will not fail to let the people of Alabama know

  • that there is equal justice for all of our citizens.”

  • Throughout her life, Parks repeatedly challenged racial violence

  • and the prejudiced systems protecting its perpetrators.

  • But this work came at an enormous risk

  • and a personal price.

  • Born in 1913, Rosa was raised by her mother and grandparents in rural Alabama.

  • But outside this loving home, the fear of racial violence cast a long shadow.

  • The Ku Klux Klan frequently drove past their home,

  • and Jim Crow laws segregated public spaces.

  • At 19 she settled in Montgomery and married Raymond Parks,

  • a barber who shared her growing fury at racial injustice.

  • He was involved with the local chapter of the NAACP;

  • a role many avoided for fear of persecution.

  • At first Raymond was eager to keep Rosa safe

  • from the potential dangers of activism.

  • But as she grew more incensed at the limitations imposed on African Americans,

  • she could no longer stand by.

  • When she officially joined the NAACP in 1943,

  • Parks and Johnnie Rebecca Carr were the only women in the Montgomery chapter.

  • She began keeping minutes for their meetings,

  • and soon found herself elected secretary of the chapter

  • formally beginning her secret double life.

  • By day, Rosa worked as a seamstress to support her mother and husband.

  • By night, she researched and documented numerous civil rights cases,

  • from local policy disputes to high-profile murder cases and hate crimes.

  • As secretary, she prepared public responses

  • on behalf of the Montgomery chapter, battling the harsh sentencing,

  • false accusation and smear campaigns frequently used against African Americans.

  • In addition to her legal work, Parks was a brilliant local strategist.

  • As advisor to the NAACP youth group council,

  • she helped young people navigate segregated systems

  • including voter registration and whites-only libraries.

  • Through the cover of the NAACP,

  • Parks strived to bring clandestine civil rights activities into the open.

  • She advocated for civil disobedience training

  • and spoke out against racial violence, particularly the murder of Emmet Till.

  • In 1955, her refusal to move to the back of a segregated bus

  • helped ignite the grassroots movement she had hoped for.

  • Parks was arrested and jailed for her one-woman protest,

  • where she was visited by local activists.

  • Together they planned a twenty-four hour bus boycott.

  • It lasted for three hundred and eighty-one days.

  • Park's simple act had transformed nascent civil rights activism

  • into a national movement.

  • In 1956, the boycott ended when the Supreme Court

  • ruled in favor of desegregating public transport.

  • But this victory for the movement had come at a great cost.

  • Rosa had been receiving vicious death threats throughout the campaign,

  • and was unable to find work in Montgomery because of her political reputation.

  • In 1957, she moved to Detroit to continue working as a seamstress,

  • until being hired by Congressman John Conyers

  • to help support his burgeoning civil rights campaigns.

  • Ever vigilant in the fight against racial inequality,

  • Parks remained active for the next 40 years.

  • She wrote several books,

  • traveled across the country giving talks to support other activists,

  • and established an institute for the education of young people

  • in her late husband's memory.

  • Today, Rosa Parks is remembered as a radical spirit

  • who railed against the most powerful people and policies.

  • Her call to action continues to resound:

  • knowing what must be done does away with fear.”

In 1944, 11 years before her fateful decision on a Montgomery Bus,


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ローザ・パークスの隠された人生 - リッチェ・D・リチャードソン (The hidden life of Rosa Parks - Riché D. Richardson)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日