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  • I like to start by saying that I do not want to be an alarmist today, but we are in danger.

  • In fact, we have always been in danger and we will always be in danger around us, on us, in us there uncountable viruses, bacteria produce Owens fungi, parasites looking for a minor breach in our defenses in Alden to invade us took over our bodies on benefits from us.

  • The whole history of humanity has been shaped by infectious diseases.

  • The antonym plague took the life off five million individuals during the Roman Empire, including one emperor The plague of Justinian name After the s turn, Roman Emperor Justin on the first killed 40 million people in the sixth century.

  • The medieval black death cards short the life off 100 million individuals in the 14th century.

  • 100 years ago, the Spanish flu outbreak killed one million people Bow week and more recently, with the outbreak of HIV, 30 million people have died off eight and still today 35 million people.

  • Our careers off the infection over the world, many off them with an unfortunate prognosis, is with 750,000 debts in the year 2018.

  • Other diseases such as tumor, closes, malaria or fungal diseases still kill millions off individuals around the world.

  • And every few years we also experienced the outbreak off some new diseases, such as we see now with a world famous and infamous Corona virus.

  • Well, this might sound scary, right?

  • He says we are going to die off, so but this is no new.

  • This has happened throughout the whole history of humanity.

  • Since the very down off mankind, there has been a constant interplay, a constant interaction between humans and pathogens.

  • That s the engine off our evolution.

  • This orbits around a very simple principle.

  • If we acquire an infection before we reach reproductive H and we die, we don't pass.

  • Own our genes to the future generations.

  • We were not resistant enough.

  • We were not adopted.

  • So our genes die with us.

  • However, if we were assistant on, we survived the infection.

  • We will have the opportunity to reproduce and to pass on their genes to future generations.

  • This is good for us.

  • This is good for all the descendants.

  • It is good for the overall survival off our species because the past influences the presence and our ancestors form the heritage on the legacy of humanity off today in many aspect CE, including the response to diseases, the majority off experts agree that Africa is the place where our species originated.

  • Started suggest connections with a NCIS Tres, who lived in this continent about 300,000 years ago, and pathogens have played a central role in human evolution from those very early times.

  • Probably the most well known example for disease that has a KN impact on human evolution is that off malaria, malaria has been present in African communities for hundreds of thousands of years, and these communities their genome, the physiology have been shaped by the severity off these infections.

  • Malaria is caused by a parasite, a parasite that is transmitted to humans through the bite off infected mosquitoes.

  • Once the parasites and our body they entered, the red blood cells are multiplied inside them.

  • However, some people have special type off red blood cells that makes them resistant to disease.

  • So we observe that in many African populations in places where malaria is endemic up many people with these kind off special red blood cells that makes them resistant to the disease.

  • How does this happen?

  • Well, this is evolution.

  • This is a tail off natural selection.

  • Let's imagine we have a new original population with five different characteristics, with five different traits represented on the slide by five different colors.

  • At the beginning, the original population has more or less the same amount of individuals with each off these different characteristics.

  • At a certain point, a critical event such as a deadly disease appears coursing.

  • Ah, bottleneck in the population, the survival of the fittest, all the dose with good characteristics with survive, while the others will perish the remaining population, the survivors will have the opportunity to reproduce and to expand their advantages, straits on then give rise to a new population to new generations adopted to the infection.

  • This is just one of sample off this influence, and in the case of malaria, there are harmful off traits that confer an advantage to infection.

  • So people who have normal Harry Throw Sight's normal red blood cells are acceptable to have malaria.

  • But people who have sickle cells, which are red blood cells with a specific shape on different properties, are resistant to malaria because the parasite cannot enter this red blood cells.

  • So we observe that in places where malaria is endemic, there are many people with sickle cells because it is an advantage on evolutionary advantage to survive.

  • Malaria on the grounds off this influence have the roots in processes that took place hundreds off thousands of years ago.

  • Because the past influences the president, however, we don't leave the same way in which our ancestors lift.

  • They have nothing to do the way we live in which even the way our grandparent's life.

  • And this also has consequences.

  • Today, the last centuries, especially in the last decades, improvements in the midst of transport half a lot, humans to trouble faster, a more distant than ever before.

  • We have seen some incredible inventions in the last years.

  • We have now antibiotics.

  • We have electricity, We have robots, we have rockets.

  • We even have ice cream.

  • And I mean, we have seen the birth and sometimes even contributed to the expansion off some incredible rest.

  • Recent inventions, such as the regular turn on tinder that also helped humans to pass on their genes to future generations.

  • And thanks to these on many other advances, our lifespan, the lifespan of many countries, including the Netherlands, has doubled in just one century.

  • Our society is experienced, your global changes at the speed never seen before in the whole history of humanity.

  • But evolution is a slow process, so all these Southern changes have consequences.

  • Changes in hygiene patterns in the last decades have protests.

  • Large improvements in sanitation, drinking water, garbage collection, et cetera that have create Lee reduced our exposure to infectious diseases on the immune system off our ancestors.

  • It's our immune system.

  • So it's mime in system, your immune system, your immune system and the immune system off the person who is in the last row are under the influence off.

  • This process is, and all our immune systems need, ah, certain degree off exposure to microbes on dirt for the correct development off immunity.

  • The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the lack of exposure to germs on dirt is associated with a higher risk off developing asthma and allergies have.

  • So we see nowadays what consequences?

  • That's this half, for example, for our Children.

  • So Children who grow out farms who are much more exposed to microbes on dirt develop muscle.

  • It's much less allergies and asthma.

  • So, please, to all those people who have gets here or thinking to have kids take them to the park.

  • Legend playing farms let her play with any Muslim than crawl on the floor because it's actually good for them for the future.

  • Likewise, the expression off gene's related with inflammation.

  • It's also related with the increase we see nowadays in inflammatory diseases.

  • So we see nowadays that many diseases related with inflammation are spreading, such as auto, immune or anti inflammatory diseases.

  • This also has to do with their functions or our off our immune system.

  • We see now as we are adopting to process food and stricter hygiene standards, our bodies react by developing the so called decease is off civilization.

  • This con off this easy Jesus I've just mentioned before are related with this excessive inflammation.

  • We suffer under this conditions.

  • So, for example, we observe now in many countries high rates off diabetes, celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease.

  • On this is already a major health issue in Western countries.

  • But it seems we are also experiencing times off globalization.

  • Many other countries, many other societies, are embracing our lifestyles on this is causing big problems.

  • For example, in Africa, where people have been in contact with more powerful and terrible diseases for longer periods of time, the inflammatory responses are higher, so they have exacerbated responses in their immune system.

  • This was useful for our ancestors to fight those powerful infections.

  • But today, in our more sterile environment, it causes inflammation.

  • And this is also related with higher rates off the sea.

  • Sister's Lupus, asthma, heart diseases on some types of cancer in African populations.

  • So if the globalization off the seven Terry Western lifestyles continues, it will collide with the inflammatory consequences off our past, creating a major health issue.

  • What White?

  • So we bet Stop it before it's too late.

  • Because we what we do today has consequences for the next generations.

  • It's not on Lee concerns issues like climate change, but also involves how.

  • Leave that this this is We get the vaccinations, we get a swell and on that sisters would suffer how we treat our Children and so on.

  • I like to give you one very particular example off this probably familiar to many of you.

  • The Dutch hunger winter in the autumn, off 1944 during second World war, German troops blocked the western part of the country, turning away or shipments of foods.

  • The situation was followed by one off the hardest winters in decades, with terrible colds and many people surviving on just 500 calories a day.

  • The hunger winter are cities known, killed 10,000 people and weekends, many more.

  • But the WAAS specific population who was affected by the situation.

  • 40,000 women were pregnant during the Dutch hunger winter, so the fetus is developed on the very restrictive calorie conditions.

  • This has consequences that were obvious right after birth, with low birth weights, birth defects and high infant mortality.

  • But some other consequences were not visible on see many years later.

  • So decades after the hunger winter, researchers showed that individuals who had just stated on the disk conditions so individuals who smothers were pregnant too in the Dutch hunger winter had higher rates off.

  • Obesity, diabetes and heart disease than individuals were just stated on the normal conditions.

  • It seems that those fetuses adopted their metabolism on the physiological processes in anticipation off the harsh environment.

  • I was waiting for them outside.

  • Well, you might say this is logical.

  • The body of dots.

  • Yes, that is true.

  • But it doesn't stop here.

  • This ghost wants their beyond.

  • Because also the grandchildren off Those women who were pregnant present this characteristics.

  • So, Doris, a dynamic adaptation to the environment.

  • The house consequences for the next generations.

  • All this example show that is a balance.

  • Humans build defenses to fight these easy's.

  • But we can stop.

  • This is from happening.

  • So what makes us stronger than one hand can also make us weaker.

  • On the other hand, we can't forget that we are the house off those people who wandered around the world looking for a better place to live.

  • We are the hairs off a long tradition of survivors off terrible diseases that made our space is stronger but also more vulnerable to the current changes off our lifestyle.

  • And knowing our past will prepare us for the future.

  • Thank you very much.

I like to start by saying that I do not want to be an alarmist today, but we are in danger.

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病気が人類の進化に与える影響|ホルヘ・ドミンゲス・アンドレス博士|TEDxHotelschoolTheHague (The impact of disease on human evolution | Dr. Jorge Domínguez Andrés | TEDxHotelschoolTheHague)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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