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  • Hey, it's me Destin, welcome back to Smarter Every Day. I've been wanting to do this video forever.

  • Chameleons tongues are very unique, and this is a very hungry chameleon right now, and I'm going to see if I can feed him

  • by holding a cricket in my mouth and

  • There's a lot of her gone hmm

  • That was amazing. You got it! Okay, so

  • The unique- that was- okay, the cool thing about chamele-- I'm feeding him again. We're doing it again.

  • Alright cricket.

  • I think you've had a good life

  • It's time to meet Mojo

  • (watchmojo is cancer)

  • (laughs) I think Mojo likes crickets

  • Okay, that's amazing

  • Okay, so it's a really unique

  • biomechanical device that's a catapult and

  • We're going to analyze it in slow motion, and then I'm going to show you a little model

  • I built to explain this, but the chameleons tongue is a wonder of nature

  • it is beautiful, so I'm gonna feed Mojo a little bit more and, uh,

  • Let's look at some slow motion, then we'll talk about it

  • watchmojo is cancer

  • Okay, this is not a good model, but we're gonna try this anyway

  • This is a chameleon, right? Right. In the back of a chameleon's throat, there is this long

  • Longitudinal bone that is fired by something called the hyoid bone.

  • You have a hyoid- it's in the back of your throat just under your jaw- anyway, the chameleon will use that to launch that bone

  • straight out

  • Forward, right? On the outside of that, there is this musculature

  • That's the tongue muscle, and a sphincter is like a muscle around a hole, right? Well this tongue of the chameleon has a series of

  • sphincter muscles lined up, and it will fire them in rapid succession so that it'll squeeze that tongue muscle off of that bone

  • That's protruding forward, so you've got several steps that happen in order to accelerate that tongue forward. It's really neat

  • How it works, but it's really hard to visualize with pipes that you created in your eyes

  • But what does help you is when you have a really smart friend named Emily Graslie

  • And you can just randomly text her: "I was wondering if you guys have a chameleon skeleton?" To which she replies:

  • "I'm certain

  • we do."

  • Hey guys

  • It's Emily Graslie from The Brain Scoop here at the Field Museum in Chicago

  • and I wanted to show you a

  • Chameleon that's been prepared in a really special way that allows you to see all of the bones in the specimen that are still intact

  • And it's a process that we call diaphonization or clearing and staining

  • This is what this process looks like. It looks as though the specimen is just a skeleton

  • But actually there's still tissue that is on all the bones. It's just been

  • processed with an enzyme that makes it clear and then the specimen sits in glycerin, which has the same refractive index as

  • The tissue in the animal so you don't get any sort of reflection

  • and then here you can see the hyoid bone and

  • here's some of the cartilage of the

  • Trachea of the windpipe, and then the hyoid bone

  • Which is three bones put together. You can even see some of that other blue cartilage down there, and then wrapped around it

  • That's actually the tongue. That's still in place

  • resting on the hyoid bone.

  • As soon as Emily sent me this footage

  • Everything became clear. You've got a two-bar mechanical linkage-

  • just like I learned about in engineering school- in the throat of the chameleon. You can see that U-shape bone in the back fold

  • Up and back as he sticks that bone in and out. It's amazing!

  • You've got those muscles on the outside of that linear bone

  • You can see the sphincters fire to squirt that tongue off the end of it. It's amazing! Anyway-

  • Let's watch the high-speed together and see if you can identify each individual step in the process in order to attack this cricket

  • On this shot the shadows are perfect

  • So they reveal exactly what's going on with a hyoid bone. It's operating exactly like a mechanical bar linkage.

  • All right, I hope you enjoyed this episode of "Smarter Every Day"

  • You know how the internet works-sometimes a sponsor will sponsor a video

  • Well this one was sponsored by KiwiCo. If you watched "Smarter Every Day" for any length of time,

  • You know I love their products.

  • I reached out to them. They sponsored when they were called Kiwi Crate,

  • But that's the name of one of their products, so now they changed their name to KiwiCo

  • Different boxes are focused on different ages in different stages of development. For example, they have a new box called a "cricket crate"

  • That's focused on 2+, so my daughter's excited- she gets to have one for herself now.

  • "I got these" "What do you got?" "I got all of these!"

  • "Oh my goodness!

  • Are you- are you serious? You're going to make rockets?

  • Man! It's a rocket!

  • I might steal this from you."

  • If you want to do this go to KiwiCo.com/smarter

  • Get the first box for free, you just pay shipping. This is completely worth it

  • and it is great for a kid's mind. As a dad, I love this because it gives my kids hands-on developmental time

  • It's better than screen time. We enjoy it. My son, for example. He likes tinker crates

  • He learns about engineering. My daughter loves art

  • So we do the doodle crate for her. She even keeps the old boxes and goes back through them sometimes. This is a blast

  • You will love it. I highly recommend it. Go to KiwiCo.com/smarter

  • These make great gifts

  • It's like giving the kid a gift every single month, and the gift is "learning."

  • Thanks to KiwiCo for sponsoring "Smarter Every Day" and give my family some quality time together. We really appreciate it.

  • A big thanks to Emily Graslie from The Brain Scoop. She's got a great YouTube channel, you should check it out.

  • She basically takes some part animals all the time. You should go look at that. It's called The Brain Scoop.

  • You'll love it.

  • Also a big thanks to Drew who is Mojo's human. Drew takes care of Mojo and

  • he does a really good job at it

  • "How many crickets will Mojo eat?" "He'll eat about 10 to 15 a day."

  • "So what other- what other things

  • do you feed him? Just crickets?"

  • "Just crickets. He'll eat

  • hornworms, cicadas, butterflies, moths."

  • "You're feeding butterflies??"

  • I hope this video earned your subscription.

  • I'm gonna put a link right here beside Mojo. If you feel like this video has earned it

  • Please click the subscribe link

  • I'm not gonna know if you click it or not

  • But Mojo is gonna be sitting there with a look of disapproval until you actually subscribe to "Smarter Every Day."

  • So I don't know, whatever you want to do, but Mojo's watching. Here we go.

Hey, it's me Destin, welcome back to Smarter Every Day. I've been wanting to do this video forever.

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カメレオンの舌はどのように機能するのか? スローモーションで)|スマートエブリデイ180 (How do Chameleon Tongues work? (In Slow Motion) | Smarter Every Day 180)

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    林宜悉 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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