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  • Imagine two people are listening to music.

  • What are the odds

  • that they are listening

  • to the exact same playlist?

  • Probably pretty low.

  • After all, everyone has very different tastes in music.

  • Now, what are the odds

  • that your body will need

  • the exact same medical care and treatment

  • as another person's body?

  • Even lower.

  • As we go through our lives,

  • each of us will have very different needs

  • for our own healthcare.

  • Scientists and doctors are constantly researching ways

  • to make medicine more personalized.

  • One way they are doing this

  • is by researching stem cells.

  • Stem cells are cells that are undifferentiated,

  • meaning they do not have a specific job or function.

  • While skin cells protect your body,

  • muscle cells contract,

  • and nerve cells send signals,

  • stem cells do not have any specific structures or functions.

  • Stem cells do have the potential

  • to become all other kinds of cells in your body.

  • Your body uses stem cells

  • to replace worn-out cells when they die.

  • For example, you completely replace

  • the lining of your intestines every four days.

  • Stem cells beneath the lining of your intestines

  • replace these cells as they wear out.

  • Scientists hope that stem cells could be used

  • to create a very special kind of personalized medicine

  • in which we could replace your own body parts with,

  • well, your own body parts.

  • Stem cell researchers are working hard

  • to find ways in which to use stem cells

  • to create new tissue

  • to replace the parts of organs

  • that are damaged by injury or disease.

  • Using stem cells to replace damaged bodily tissue

  • is called regenerative medicine.

  • For example, scientists currently use stem cells

  • to treat patients with blood diseases

  • such as leukemia.

  • Leukemia is a form of cancer

  • that affects your bone marrow.

  • Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside your bones

  • where your blood cells are created.

  • In leukemia, some of the cells inside your bone marrow

  • grow uncontrollably, crowding out the healthy stem cells

  • that form your blood cells.

  • Some leukemia patients can receive

  • a stem cell transplant.

  • These new stem cells will create

  • the blood cells needed by the patient's body.

  • There are actually multiple kinds

  • of stem cells that scientists can use

  • for medical treatments and research.

  • Adult stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells

  • are found in small numbers

  • in most of your body's tissues.

  • Tissue-specific stem cells replace

  • the existing cells in your organs

  • as they wear out and die.

  • Embryonic stem cells are created

  • from leftover embryos that are willingly donated

  • by patients from fertility clinics.

  • Unlike tissue-specific stem cells,

  • embryonic stem cells are pluripotent.

  • This means that they can be grown

  • into any kind of tissue in the body.

  • A third kind of stem cells

  • is called induced pluripotent stem cells.

  • These are regular skin, fat, liver, or other cells

  • that scientists have changed

  • to behave like embryonic stem cells.

  • Like embryonic stem cells,

  • they, too, can become any kind of cell in the body.

  • While scientists and doctors hope to use

  • all of these kinds of stem cells

  • to create new tissue to heal your body,

  • they can also use stem cells

  • to help understand how the body works.

  • Scientists can watch stem cells develop

  • into tissue to understand the mechnanisms

  • that the body uses to create new tissue

  • in a controlled and regulated way.

  • Scientists hope that with more research,

  • they can not only develop specialized medicine

  • that is specific to your body

  • but also better understand

  • how your body functions,

  • both when it's healthy

  • and when it's not.

Imagine two people are listening to music.

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B1 中級

TED-ED】幹細胞とは何か?- クレイグ・A・コーン (【TED-Ed】What are stem cells? - Craig A. Kohn)

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    Sofi に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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