Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • so Okay, so we talked a little bit about motivation.

  • Last time are quite a bit about motivation.

  • And what I I told you that I was basically teach you teaching you Ah, personality, neuroscience approach to personality.

  • And part of the reason that I have to go into the biology to give is to give you the kind of foundation that you need in order to understand.

  • I would say what's essentially the cutting edge in personality research?

  • No, I mean, I know that what we're going, what we covered last lecturer and what we're gonna cover today are relatively complicated.

  • But if you get them right, then you're right at the forefront of of our ideas about brain function and emotion and about personality.

  • So you get all that at the same time, and today you'll get a little bit of learning theory thrown in as well.

  • So learning theory is basically what used to be what what's alternatively described as behaviorism.

  • And I don't.

  • I used to teach behaviorism in this class, but I've subsumed it underneath the biology because the old a lot of the old behavior of pre suppositions, although they were extremely useful.

  • We're not right, which is exactly what you'd expect.

  • They were formulated in the 19 fifties, Um, and it's actually the sign of the progress of a science that theories that air 60 years old or no longer right.

  • So, um, we'll also cover a little bit of behavioral theory today, too.

  • So okay, so the hypothesis we've been working on so far or we'll call it the working theory is that motivation, set goals or, more accurately, that they define a conceptual space within which you perceive the world and within which you act towards some goal and or to some end point.

  • And the endpoint, in some sense, is specified by the motivational system.

  • It's a hypothalamic system, are often but not always.

  • But not only is the goal specified, but the underlying motivational systems also tune your perception.

  • So you're only looking at the things that you know to be relevant to the pursuit of that goal, and they also either dis inhibit or activate the behavioral schemes that you would normally use to pursue the goal.

  • And sometimes those, let's say, the motor schemes, because that would be more accurate.

  • When you think about behavior, you tend to think about voluntary behavior.

  • But motivational state will dis inhibit or activate, depending on the situation.

  • Autonomic responses.

  • So, for example, when you when you were food deprived and you start to think about food and start to organize your behavior towards food as an end and to perceive the world that way your body also prepares for food.

  • And so the motivational state is an all encompassing psycho physiological phenomenon.

  • It's not something as simple as chain behavior, which was an early be behavioral theory or as simple as something that's merely setting a goal.

  • It's much more complicated than that.

  • It's it's useful to think about as we've already talked about with regards to psychodynamic theory, it's useful to think about a motivated state as a micro personality.

  • It's got one aim in mind, fundamentally.

  • So it's It's not particularly sophisticated, but it has all the other elements of a personality.

  • So now, so motivation establishes the framework within which goals air pursued and the goal itself and then roughly speaking emotions, or at least many of the emotions track progress towards ghouls.

  • And so they kind of tell you whether you're on the right track, er or not, so that's a reasonable way of distinguishing them.

  • Even though there is no single motivation system over a single emotion system, there's some basic motivations.

  • These are the sorts of things that Freud would have associated fundamentally with Ed.

  • So and he thought of those is primordial.

  • And that's exactly right, because pretty much all of these motivational systems we share certainly with other people, also with other mammals and then, of course, with animals that air farther down the evolutionary chain than mammals.

  • So some of these systems are extraordinarily old.

  • Fact, all of them are extraordinarily old hunger, consequence of food deprivation, obviously thirst.

  • Obviously, people are very dependent on water pain pains, complicated.

  • There's there is physical pain.

  • And then there's it's mental equivalents and the mental equivalents of pain, our grief, disappointment, frustration, roughly speaking.

  • And so you can do it.

  • You can think about that as you you know, You saw the picture of the nervous system that I showed you last time with the branches going up into the brain, obviously, but with all the branches or the roots say going down into the body.

  • So we discussed the central nervous system as a sort of all encompassing system distributed throughout the body.

  • Imagine that part of that network throughout your body is associated with pain reception, and that would be roughly equivalent to systems registering levels of input that air high enough to potentially damage them.

  • That's that's where pain seeps seems to come in, and the different pieces of that could be activated at different times.

  • So if it's psychological pain, as I said, grief, frustration, disappointment seems to fall into that category.

  • Loneliness is another one.

  • Then maybe it's primarily the cortical circuitry for pain that's activated.

  • And although people who are depressed, for example, who are grieving often have somatic pain as well, and depression really looks like it's a pain state we know loneliness is because if you take like little chicks or little kittens and you make them loan someone, they'll cry.

  • You know which is or peep if their chicks and you can stop them from doing that by using opiates, and it's not because it stops them from vocalizing, because that would be a possibility.

  • Just get them so stoned on morphine that they can't peep.

  • You think while they're now, they're not lonesome anymore.

  • So it's The experiments have been done carefully enough to factor out the effect of the opiates on the vocalization.

  • So and that's also led to some suspicion that people who have I have had a history of extraordinarily painful personal relationships might be those who are more prone, topi it use.

  • And so opiates an algae six are They basically dampen out pain and frustration and disappointment and grief and loneliness.

  • So there's an anger and aggression system.

  • It's complicated.

  • There's probably two of them.

  • One is defensive aggression that's probably more associated with neuroticism.

  • Technically, the others probably predatory aggression.

  • And, you know, human beings are definitely predators were meat eaters and, you know, our closest relatives.

  • Chimpanzees, for example.

  • They're they're pretty good hunters.

  • They they'll they'll pack, gather together in packs and bring down £30 colobus monkeys.

  • And the meat is very popular among the chimps, and so predatory aggression seems to be a separate circuit as well.

  • Discuss further along.

  • I think the predatory aggression circuit and the maternal solicitude circuit, because there's also a care circuit, have evolved to be at opposite ends of the same distribution.

  • I think that's the agreeableness distribution in the Big Five.

  • So in one day, and there's maternal solicitude and the other end, there's predatory aggression, and you could imagine how those things have to inhibit one another.

  • Um, because while with with many mammals bears, for example, the males, they're so predatory that you have to keep them away from the cubs because they'll kill them Human beings.

  • I mean, there's some aggression towards Children, especially if the Children aren't biological relatives.

  • But men are pretty caring for male mammals, and women are actually quite predatory for male mammals.

  • So thermal regulation your hypothalamus takes care of whether you're harder called panic and escape that those air circuits that also seem to be associated with pain fundamentally, although threat can maybe triggered them as well.

  • And the panic escape system doesn't exactly seem to be the same system as the anxiety and fear system.

  • Even though they sound, they sound roughly equivalent right.

  • You might think of panic as just the extreme level of fear, and I think fear can trigger panic.

  • But panic seems to be a more primordial circuit, and if you're panicking, there's an immense impetus to to escape.

  • So that's a different circuit affiliation care, recovered sexual desire, exploration and play.

  • Both those seem to be separate circuits.

  • So Jack Pancks up Yak Pancks up, actually, who wrote a great book called Affective Neuroscience.

  • By the way, if any of you are interested in, like the cycle biology of behavior and motivation, Jac Pay accepts book is one of the best.

  • I don't have a paper by him in our collection, but he's a very smart guy, wrote this book called Affective Neuroscience, And it's actually given its title and the relative complexity of its of its thoughts.

  • It's actually quite readable, even though it's a text a little more personal than your typical text might be in pain except is also very interested in psychodynamic and personality idea.

  • So he's a very broad thinker, And so, if you're interested in, you know, a new approach to psychology, that sort of crosses the threshold from personality into emotion and biology.

  • Pancks up as well as gray.

  • There's a great paper that you're reading our pranks.

  • That's a very, very good source.

  • He's a very He discovered the place circuit, for example, and he also discovered that rats laugh.

  • So if you tickle a rat.

  • It laughs.

  • You can't hear it, though, because it lasts ultrasonic li like a bat.

  • But if you record the rat, giggling and then slow down the tape and you can tell that the rat laughs and rats need to play, and most mammals need to play in order to, uh, socialize the so so one of the things you can think about this when your parents, too.

  • And this is probably especially relevant for the man, because one of the things you might ask is, what role do men play in the socialization of Children?

  • And one thing that men really do seem to do with kids is to engage in rough and tumble play, especially once they're a little older than to, say, 2 to 5 or something.

  • And kids love that.

  • They absolutely love rough and tumble play gets them so excited that, you know they get out of control fundamentally.

  • But rough and tumble play is an excellent mode of socialization because it teaches the child the distinction between aggression and too much aggression.

  • Right, because if you're wrestling with a kid, the kid has to keep their behavioral output under a fair degree of control to keep the game going, to make it rough enough to be exciting, but not so rough that they get hurt.

  • Or you know that they stick their thumb in their dad's eye or something like that.

  • And you can think of that from a P a Jedi in sense, too, because it's a game.

  • But imagine that if you're trying to figure out how to configure yourself around other people, if you haven't had that rough and tumble play, you don't really know where the boundaries of your body are, you know, and you don't know how much you can take and how much you could be stretched and how much you could be thrown around when something actually hurts rather than this frightening.

  • And so all of that intense sort of play that that that boys in particular are likely to engage in all the girls also like it, seems to be very useful for teaching Children about how to engage with the world and with other people in a physical way.

  • And that's one of the physiological foundations for higher order socialization.

  • So it's very useful.

  • I mean, I've are both often noted that Children who haven't had the opportunity to engage in physical play.

  • They're kind of awkward, you know.

  • They're not.

  • They're not seated well in their body, and it's like they're kind of vague physically.

  • Where's the ones who've bean twisted around and bent and throwing up in the air and wrestled?

  • In general, there are a lot more conscious of their limits and their abilities in their body, and they're also much more able to invite other kids to play.

  • You can think about this with regards to dogs.

  • You know, if you have a dog, you know the dog you could tell when the dog wants to play right.

  • What is the dog?

  • Doo?

  • Yeah, jumps around and it puts its rear end in the air often and its head down.

  • It looks up, which is a little bit submissive and a little bit friendly, and it wags its tail that might bark and it moves back and forth like little kids that want to play do well.

  • They don't put their tails in the air, obviously, but they engage in, like play invitation behaviors like that.

  • You know, a little bit of teasing sometimes, and they're trying to get some play initiated.

  • It's also practice for later dominance.

  • When chimps play the males in particular as they approach adolescence, the play behavior because then they'll throw sticks at the old chimps were laying down and sleeping or come up and poke them or, you know, tease them.

  • And then I was.

  • They become more and more powerful and more and more adolescents saying into adulthood than that play will become full blown dominance challenges as you don't no doubt noticed if you were in junior high school, because that's exactly what happens to teachers, right?

  • The little elementary school kids, they're kind of cute when they misbehave.

  • They're sort of playful, but by the time great eight or great nine comes around, the pushing on the teacher is a lot harder, and so you can see how play shades into dominance dispute.

  • But it is a separate circuit exploration that's a separate circuit, and one of the things that we'll talk about today is Swanson's elaboration of the fact that half of the hypothalamus is fundamentally devoted towards exploration, which is quite cool.

  • It means exploration is a really, really, really old system, and it's sort of like if you haven't got anything else to do so you don't want to play.

  • You're not hungry.

  • You're not thirsty.

  • You're not angry.

  • You're not too warm or too cold, etcetera, etcetera.

  • Your default isn't sort of quiet.

  • Essence.

  • Sleep right.

  • You don't just run out of batteries and lie on the floor unless you're of course.

  • Obviously, unless you're very tired, what'll generally happen is if the other fundamental motivational states have bean satiated.

  • Then you engage in exploration and some different people at different rates.

  • If you're extroverted, you'll engage in exploration in the social environment.

  • And if you're open, then you'll engage in exploration at a more cognitive level.

  • So that would be with regards to artistic creativity or the fiction or or the expression of some sort of intellectual or philosophical pursuit.

  • And the reason that you're wired up that way is because if you have a little extra energy, you might as well use that to map out more of the environment so that when push comes to shove somewhere down the road, he'll be in possession of more information and more flexible and more knowledgeable in your in your in your conceptual and perceptual structures and also in your action, so people have a pretty strong tendency to default exploration.

  • But there's variability in that, and you can also sort of divide up these motivations as ingested or defensive.

  • That's not a bad way of looking at it.

  • And then there's reproductive motivations as well.

  • That's unlikely to be a full map.

  • It kind of depends on where you put the emotions, because we know, for example, that there's a separate discussed circuit, and that doesn't seem to load with anxiety or with pain.

  • It's it's it's its own biological a system, and it seems to be associated with trade conscientiousness, maybe, and also with political conservatism and orderliness.

  • So those things are all quite interesting.

  • Well, kind of clump together.

  • And but whether that's an emotion or motivations not exactly clear.

  • But, um, we'll talk about it a little bit more.

  • So there's the hypothalamus, and as you can see, it's not one thing.

  • Of course, nothing at the macro level in the brain is one thing.

  • Obviously, it's this layered thing, just like everything else in the world, except even more so because the brain is so incredibly complicated and you can see by looking at that, there's all those little all the things that are colored.

  • They're basically hypothalamic.

  • Modules, I guess, would be a reasonable way of putting it.

  • And you can tell they're even an anatomically distinct.

  • So obviously they're not doing exactly the same thing.

  • So you might think of Brain.

  • And now to be a sort of a fixed what would you call something that we've already managed quite well And we have all the category systems down, and the structure of the brain is quite well known, and that's really not true at all.

  • Like the brain is truly terra incognita.

  • And it isn't even like are naming rituals.

  • Let's say our conventions are not necessarily appropriate for 1 to 1 mapping of, say, structure on to function.

  • So, um, they're they're they're sort of anatomical, their markers for anatomical convenience in some ways.

  • Okay, so so here's a way of thinking about it.

  • So you have your frame, which specifies your lack, say I'm hungry and then a gold pops up, which is well, I should have something to eat.

  • And the hypothalamus is modulating, perceptual and cognitive circuits so that you think that and so that you start to parts of the world into a place where are hungry person like you could become satisfied and then the behaviors kickin that are relevant to that pursuit.

  • And so you can think of yourself as popping through these sorts of frames on a fairly cyclic basis throughout the day.

  • You know, obviously, you get hungry, you get thirsty, you get tired.

  • And so your consciousness is being modulated by sub cortical circuitry that is basically charged with your self preservation.

  • And in some ways, you come along for the ride.

  • I mean, your consciousness is mostly they're in some sense to detect deviations from not so much expectation, but from desire.

  • Right, because you lay out one of these little maps on the world and then you warn something to happen.

  • And what your consciousness does more or less is more monitor.

  • And if something that you don't want to happen happens, then consciousness will take a look in some sense.

  • Remember that hierarchy of goals that I showed you from, you know, motor output upto high order goals.

  • Your consciousness kind of moves up and down that thing.

  • If you've made an error trying to figure out at which level of abstraction that error should be rectified, which is sort of what you do when you think and so that process is going to kick in.

  • Whenever you're moving towards your desired end and something that you don't want to have happen happens right, you usually stop that sort of it ain't anxiety response the stopping and then if nothing else, happens, that's too bad, while then you'll you'll start to explore, and animals often do that by moving around.

  • But people will do that, just as with with equal facility, just by running simulations in their mind and trying to calculate what went wrong, right trying to think about it.

  • That's a form of exploratory behaviour as well.

  • That would be more associated with trade, openness and with intelligence.

  • So so there's how Swanson divides up the hype.

  • Tell Miss See, the little pink things there on the left are part of the defensive circuits, and then the red things on the left are part of the reproductive circuits.

  • And, you know, obviously those the fact that those circuits exist lays on to Darwinian theory quite nicely.

  • The defensive circuits obviously protect you from dying in the reproductive circuits, you know, facilitate your reproduction.

  • It's not much of a what fairly obvious conclusion.

  • And so those are all located in this in this essential part of the brain, the hypothalamus, hypothalamus.

  • Now this is something a little.

  • It's a little more complex, so I'll go through it a little bit more carefully.

  • So if you look on the right, this is where Swanson maps perfectly onto J and I.

  • I put this once and paper in as, ah, optional reading.

  • But if you're interested in the sorts of things that we're covering this class, that's a great paper to hack your way through, even though it's very hard, because you learn a lot about the underlying biology of some of these more complex clinical and developmental theories that we've covered.

  • So basically what Swanson is pointing out is that at the lowest level at the highest resolution level of your central nervous system, you're you have motor output circuits that are enabling you to move and those air communicating in large part with your spine, but also with lower parts of your brain stem.

  • So those air fundamental movements of the sorts that PJ would call reflexive and then the local motor pattern generator.

  • I think the best way to think about this from an Anna logical perspective.

  • And actually Alexander Luria used this analogy.

  • He called behavioral patterns, kinetic melodies.

  • It's a lovely phrase, say, because you know how obviously a song is made out of notes.

  • And then the notes combined into phrases and the phrases combined singing two passages and then, well, even more interestingly.

  • Then, if it's an orchestral piece of music, multiple instruments are playing at the same time, so it's sort of extends right into the social domain.

  • But your your actions, they're sort of like that.

  • They're made out of micro routines.