字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Jay Keasling: We are in a race. the race is against time. We have to build cities, we need them. But we have to make them in a different way. Dan Kammen: We need a wave of innovation, not only for our way of life, but also for the planet. The consequences would be enormous if we lose this battle. Thomas Goetz: I'm Thomas Goetz, executive editor at Wired Magazine. At wired, we look at the innovators and innovations that are changing our world. In the next hour, we'll see three stories from acclaimed filmmakers about the future of energy. We'll explore cutting edge innovations in how we drive, how we live, and, in our first story, how we fuel our cars. They're all ideas that promise to shape the path to the world of 2050. [♪...] The world has right now, close to a billion cars, and we might double the number of cars on the planet by 2050. So if we double the number of vehicles, we really increase the amount of fuel they consume, and that's going to have a big, big footprint in terms of our demand for resources to move all those vehicles around. Kay Keasling: We're pulling up carbon that's been stored underground and burning it in our automobiles and putting all that carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. If we don't reduce that, we could have changes in the climate that we could never recover from. There's a number of forecasts for what type of transportation economy we could move into. One vision is that we would use more and more liquid fuels, another one is we'll use more and more electricity. Right now, more of the industrial activity is focused around liquid biofuels. The thing about a fuel is, its really unparalleled on a weight basis how much energy is in a gallon of fuel. And even if batteries develop as some of the advocates hope they develop, we're not going to see batteries running large trucks and we're certainly not going to see an electrified air flight. We're going to need transportation fuels for those that will directly replace the petroleum based fuels that we're using today. This has kicked off people looking at a whole range of other alternatives to petroleum in your tank. Isaias Macedo: Commercial production of ethanol as fuel started in Brazil in 1975. When we started the ethanol program, nobody talked about reducing emissions. This was not an issue at that time. First, and most important, we didn't have money to buy oil anymore after the first oil short. We were importers of oil. And today, more than 50% of all cars use ethanol instead of gasoline. Brazil made a very conscious choice to try to find a way to reduce their fossil fuel dependence. And they didn't have to look very far because Brazil's climate is ideal for growing sugar cane. Carlos Dinucci: when you have sugar cane plantation, you have only two things to make: sugar and ethanol. My family has been in the sugarcane business since 1955 and about thirty years ago, I thought "there's an opportunity to make more ethanol." Now, we're producing 120,000 cubic meters of ethanol. Brazil today has very close to 400 sugar mills. The overall sales is 30 billion us dollars. And this number is increasing. If you look at how they make ethanol and how efficient the process is, it's really a model for all of us. They grind the plant up, extract the sugar from the cane, the sugar goes into these large fermentation tanks which combine sugars together with yeast that naturally produces ethanol. They use the rest of the plant to generate heat to distill the ethanol and turn it into fuel. They also use that heat to generate electricity renewably, not putting excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Brazil has gotten to a point today where they're using about 40% less petroleum than they would be otherwise, but Brazil cannot supply the whole world with ethanol because they would have to cut very strongly into food production and into critical natural areas like the Amazon to make that happen. This really boils down to the fact that there's only so much arable land, and growing fuel for our gas tanks is yet another demand on that landscape. We cannot kid ourselves into thinking that we've found a general solution for the world problem. I think we have to face the world in this way today. We have no oil in very large quantities anymore. We have no coal transforming in a clean way, in the meantime we have to do the best we can, and the best at the moment is that we can do biofuels. Sugarcane to ethanol is an incredibly efficient process. You get out about seven times the energy you put into growing the sugar cane. In the US when we produce ethanol from corn, for every unit of input of energy we get about the same amount of energy out. So we're really not gaining anything. We need a better process. We don't have to take what nature's given us, we can actually engineer plants and yeast to be more efficient. And that's the basis for a lot of the work that we're doing now. What we need to look at though, is which of the pathways to come out of this are not only good financially, but those that are also good for sustainability. And this equation is really wide open right now. We are in a race to develop fuels. The race isn't with other countries, the race is against time. Cristiano Borges: To meet the immediate and future demands, we made the energy solution spring from the ground. Luis Scoffone: Brazil is the most efficient ethanol producing country in the world. Sugarcane alcohol from Brazil can reduce the total carbon footprint by up to 70%, compared with gasoline. The biggest challenge for fuel providers, and car manufacturers is to reduce CO2 emissions over the next twenty years. Demand for mobility will continue to grow. We believe that biofuels are very important because they help in an immediate way. All forms of fuel are going to be needed; hydrocarbons, natural gas, biofuels, all of them are going to be part of the energy needs for the future of transportation. Brazil has been very successful at taking a resource they had and finding the process to make that into ethanol and people call those first generation biofuels. We have lots of lab work around the world that are looking at the second generation and that's generally turning cellulosic material from for example weeds, into biofuels. And the United States is very much at the forefront of the innovation part of the equation. For centuries we've been using yeast to consume glucose and produce wine and beer. We're trying to do something very similar, only we're engineering the yeast to consume that glucose and turn it into a fuel or drug or chemical. We call this synthetic biology and when i started in this area, many of my colleagues said "Oh Jay, this is great work, but where's the application, what are you going to do with these tools?" Who cares? Malaria is an enormous problem. In any one year, a million or so people die of the disease and most of them are children under the age of 5. So we thought this was a great opportunity to engineer yeast to produce an antimalarial drug called artemisinin. This drug is derived from plants right now, but its too expensive for people in the developing world. So my laboratory engineered yeast to produce small quantities of artemisinin, now that process is being scaled up and we'll have this drug on the market shortly, but at a substantially reduced cost. It turns out that that anti-malarial drug is a hydrocarbon and it's very similar in many ways to diesel fuel. We thought, gosh we can turn our attention now to fuels. We can make a few changes in that microbe to turn it into a fuel-producing microbe. If we imagine that glucose is going to be our new petroleum, we need a source for that glucose. So the crops that we're looking at are crops like switchgrass. This is a native grass, it grows without a lot of water and on marginal lands. we could turn it into energy farms. The challenge though, is that unlike sugar cane, it's very difficult to get the sugar out of that biomass.