字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント A New Culture of Learning I'm really happy to be here, and I have a lot to talk about. About a year and a half ago, I published a book with my colleague John Seely Brown called "A New Culture of Learning." And it addressed what we saw on some fundamental problems with what was happening in education today. And, it hit us very early on that learning is fundamentally an easy thing that we do, that we do from the day we're born until the day that we die. And that for most of our lives it is natural and it's effortless everywhere but school. So, it's sort of a hit this, that maybe we need to rethink a little bit about what learning looks like in our everyday lives, and, start to think about how we can recreate our educational systems, our classrooms, our training seminars to mirror what learning really looks like. And we came with the idea of a new culture of learning based on really three different areas: The first was the idea that we need to engage passion and if you look at a child learning you see in their eyes the passion, the wonder, the joy. A few months ago, I was with a colleague of mine with her three-year-old child walking down the beach in Santa Monica, where I live. And he came across a very odd tree that had all kinds of misshapen branches and a strange bark, and he just sat there and stared at it and wondered and then like a child would do when you're three, started taking the bark, you know, smelling it, putting it in his mouth. He wanted to know everything about that tree. And it was a moment when I thought: "I'm really witnessing pure learning happening." And if somebody has a passion for something, trying to stop them from learning, you can't do it. No matter what obstacles you put in the way, they will find the way to learn what they need to know. This is the first thing. The second thing that we found as an important component of a new culture of learning is imagination. And imagination really begins with two words which I think are the two most powerful words in English language: What if. It's the ability to imagine things differently than they are, and the incredible power that comes out of those two words can literally reshape the world. So, those two things form one component of the new culture of learning. The third component that's equally as important is constraint. If you want to drive an architect crazy give them a large smooth flat piece of land, and then watch them, you know... spin out of control trying to figure out what to do with it; but if you really want to make them happy, give them something that's impossible to build on. Give them a river, a mountain, a tree, a big rock in the middle and let them work around it, and, they will create something brilliant. I think when Ken Robinson, at the beginning, he was talking about creativity, that's what he meant. It's the idea of creating in the face of obstacles. And putting obstacles in people's way can harness that passion and imagination, and the combination of those two things can create something great. And out of all this, John and I talked a lot about what the fundamental ingredient was in creating a new culture of learning. We decided it was PLAY. And play is a concept that combines those three things. And I come up with the definition that I rather like, which is "the play is an emergent property of the application of rules to the imagination." And if you think about something like as basic as a game where you say "take this ball, put it in that goal but you can't use your hands." What would you invent? Football or what we call soccer. So that idea of just putting those rules in place fires the imagination, and if you think of all the wonderful things that people do in that game: the imagination, the creativity, the joy; it all comes from that simple collision of imagination and rules. So, that was the fundamental idea behind "A New Culture of Learning". And I realized pretty quickly one of the great things about my job as I get to go to talk about this book to lots of audiences, and a lot of them are teachers. And, instead of telling teachers what they need to be doing, I spent a lot of time listening to them tell their stories about how their schools were working. And I learned four things from the teachers that I talked to. The first was that teachers, just as much as students, have passion. They care about what's going on the classroom, they care about their students and they want students to learn; that the reason they went into that job was to see the light bulb go off over students head, to see their eyes light up with wonder when they found some... you know, a new idea. And going through that, talking to these teachers, I found time and time again they have roadblocks put in their way. I found a ninth grade teacher who teaches English in California and on the curriculum, mandated by the state, is that he teach the book "Romeo and Juliet" by Shakespeare. And he tells me the first two pages of "Romeo and Juliet", this is his favorite thing to teach, it is his favorite day of the year. It is the day he looks forward to more than anything else because the first two pages of "Romeo and Juliet" are full of dirty jokes. And he knows that he is going to get every student laughing and giggling and they'll be the one student who sit in their going "I don't get it" and somebody will whisper on their ear... and they will go "Oh oh oh, I get it", right. It is a joyful experience for him to watch the language of Shakespeare come alive and for them to say "Well, I want to read this... it's a dirty book" right? "I'm very interested in what's gonna happen." And this language, it has lots of different levels so they spend the rest of the semester trying to find the double entendres and all of the magic in Shakespeare's language. What a wonderful experience! And to see him in one day and two pages hook kids on Shakespeare, that for him is why he became a teacher. Except... this year, because someone complained because he was telling dirty jokes. And he was called in not only to the principal's office but in front of a tribunal to evaluate his fitness as a teacher. He was suspended from school for a week. He was absolutely, you know, found this mind-boggling, he hadn't assigned the book and he said: "Your problem isn't with me, it's with Shakespeare; and if you're gonna tell me I have to teach this play I'm going to teach it properly." So he was being punished for actually teaching the text he was told to teach and the kids understanding it. And at one point he turned this committee and said: "Have any of you actually read "Romeo and Juliet"?" And not one of them had. But one of them had children who had explained it to her, and she said to him: "Why can't you just make it a nice love story?" And he said: "You do realize they both died at the end right?" So that's the kind of battle that students are faced or teachers are facing and, to make matters worse, I was just in New York talking with some teachers as well and they've done a survey of New York students, and they've asked K-12 students outside of the classroom what are their major learning resources? And the things that came up with were their mobile phone or iPhone, Facebook and Youtube. So New York City did the only reasonable thing that you could do, which is they banned all three, immediately. Not only for the students but also for the teachers. So if you're a New York City school teacher, you cannot access Youtube to show videos, you cannot do anything with mobile phones, and you cannot have any contact with students or use Facebook in the classroom. And there is a big protest now, where I think forty seven or fifty one of the commissioners of the New York School System wrote the president chancellor and said: "This is unacceptable" "You must allow phones in the schools"