字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント You work for me. We're gonna make a lot of money today. We're gonna make you some money today. If you guys don't, you're fired. [THEME MUSIC PLAYING] NARRATOR: The School of Life is sending some of YouTube's most popular creators on a series of field trips to explore some philosophy's most intriguing ideas. This time, good friends Hannah Stocking and Anwar Jibawi two LA-based content creators best known for their comedy skits and with a fan base of over ten million subscribers between them, asked, "If capitalism has reached the end of the road, and, if it's broken, what kind of system might replace it?" Anwar, what do you know about capitalism? Capitalism, well, here's the thing. Capitalism is um... NARRATOR: A 60-second guide to capitalism. For thousands of years, the rich were rich because they owned land and the poor were poor because they didn't. With no opportunities to change their circumstances, nobody questioned their place or hatched elaborate schemes to get rich quick. But, in the 1500s, a scientific and technological revolution swept through Europe. Over the next 500 years, fortunes were made from a new capitalist system, based on the spiraling profits that could be reaped from an ever growing cycle of production and consumption. But capitalism also created a new moral choice, because as the wealth of the few grew, so, too, did the suffering of the poor, as they labored in the new factories in cities they flocked to looking for work. We could either be rich or virtuous. Profit relied on exploiting workers and selling people things they didn't need. While being thrifty and honest meant a life of poverty. The choice between profit and purpose is more urgent now than ever. As a soaring population consumes increasingly scarce resources, provoking a striking new question. Could the future of capitalism look a lot like socialism? We asked Hannah and Anwar to investigate some of the pluses and minuses of capitalism and socialism, by running rival cake stalls according to the principles of each at the Grand Central Market at downtown Los Angeles. Hannah's stall is driven by key capitalist principles, an overwhelming concern for profit, prioritizing the needs of consumers over those of the workers, and clever marketing to stimulate desire. HANNAH: If somebody's gonna buy a cupcake, they're gonna want edible sparkles and gold flakes on it. And deliciousness. Anybody want some cupcakes, five dollars only. NARRATOR: Anwar's cake stall is governed by key socialist principles. Because profit seems to rest upon exploitation, the only goal is to break even, prioritizing the needs of the workers over those of consumers, providing customers with only the basics. Our cupcakes are three dollars. ANWAR: Cool. Agreed? -ANWAR: Cool. Awesome. -Works for me. NARRATOR: A long standing argument between capitalism and socialism hangs on a heated disagreement over three key concepts. Profit, competition and happiness. In capitalism, people use their money to start businesses, or lend their money to others expecting to make a return on it. Socialists say that the search for profit inevitably exploits the workers, by not paying them decently or by making them work too hard. We're gonna make you some money today. You guys don't, you're fired. You gotta work hard enough to get rewarded. Why do you think parents give you chores and then money at the end of the day? You have to work for the money. That makes sense. But there's a limit. We're not trying to rip anyone off. What if we don't sell? Don't worry, you'll still get paid. Yeah. NARRATOR: But capitalists say that in the drive to make money, they become focused on customer satisfaction, in a way that socialists rarely are. We have four flavors. All of them are $5 each. Five bucks? That's so much money. -It's probably the best cupcake you'll ever have. -Okay. NARRATOR: This is the paradox that capitalism's earliest analyst, Adam Smith, called the invisible hand of the market, whereby capitalism forces the most selfish people to think about the needs of others. Not because they're kind, but in order to drive up profits. Out of selfishness, business will be super-attentive and, in a way, kind to customers. Thank you guys, so much, for your business. NARRATOR: In a deep sense, greed is good, or at least it may do good. Capitalists believe that humans are lazy, risk-averse creatures who naturally take the easy road, and won't invent or invest unless forced to by the threat of someone else grabbing their profits. We're gonna go get something to eat. Can you watch my stand, please? -What? -Yeah, is that cool. Thank you. ANWAR: Let's go. NARRATOR: A so-called free market is essential because only competition creates an incentive for people to innovate and make their products and services better. HANNAH: People are just naturally drawn to ours, which is gold, balloons, signs, boys yelling. And over there... NARRATOR: Socialists will say that the free market leads to further exploitation of workers as firms undercut each other on price by pushing down wages and conditions. Arman, I don't know if I could afford to keep you here any longer, so we're gonna need to send you home early. You want me to go home, right now? HANNAH: Right now. Yeah. NARRATOR: Socialists prefer the opposite of the free market. A monopoly: one cake stand for everyone. Which is the very thing that capitalists say leads to stagnation and the failure to provide value for customers. My workers obviously love me way more than they loved you. Yeah. You're a popular boss, but you're not gonna be popular when you run out of business. NARRATOR: Socialists argue that profit relies on selling people things that they desire but don't need. Things like exotic fruits, expensive wines and cupcakes. Socialists prefer a simple economy based on needs, not desires. We've got red velvet, chocolate, double chocolate. -Guys, you want some cupcakes? -[GIRLS SCREAMING] She's profiting off everyone here. ANWAR: And she's ripping everyone off. NARRATOR: Capitalists would say that in a basic economy, where people only buy what they really need, most businesses would quickly go bust and tax revenues would collapse. Everyone would suffer, especially the most vulnerable. Capitalists don't think we desperately need fancy cupcakes. But the surplus generated from this kind of unnecessary expenditure is what creates the wealth which pays for things like schools and old people's homes. It seems we face a choice. A free market economy driven by profit, which strives to please customers but exploits workers, or the workers who do well can be richly rewarded... So, here's your wages and here's your bonus. Thank you so much, boss. Thank you for making me money. NARRATOR: ...or a tightly controlled economy focused on satisfying basic needs, where workers are put ahead of customers, but where a lack of competition means that there's never enough profit to escape from poverty or innovate properly. -This is for you. -Thank you. -This is for you. -Thank you. This is for me. Cheers. WOMAN: Cheers. [LAUGHS] NARRATOR: Part of the problem is that the capitalism versus socialism debate is often presented as an "either-or." I think both are good in their own ways. I just think that if we get little parts from each system, there's a good way of finding, like, a middle ground, you know. Think you're onto something, Anwar. Yeah. NARRATOR: Perhaps both sides need to steal each other's best lines. From socialism, capitalism should steal... And from capitalism, socialism should steal... What else might each side learn from the other? Tell us in the comments below. I hope you guys enjoyed watching this film. Make sure to subscribe to The School of Life channel. All you got to do is click the button right here. Right over here. Click it. Click. Click it, now! -And like it. And comment it. -Click it.