字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント - If I asked you to show me a picture of your mother, you wouldn't show me a, uh, closeup shot of her elbow. But you could, and you'd be right. That would be a photo of her, but it wouldn't feel right because it's not her face. That's how important faces are to us. We're going to see if forcing a facial expression can change the way we feel. - Are you comfortable handling dog feces? Okay. - And if you remove the ability to make facial expressions, will it affect how you perceive emotions in others? - What? - No. - How could that--that--no. - I don't think so. - And what are we saying by raising an eyebrow? Do you know? [electronic music] ♪ ♪ Why does doing this make me look angry? And why does doing this make me look so happy? Where does all this stuff come from? When it comes to interpersonal communication, it's easy to think that speech dominates, but yet, we have hairless faces. That's very unique among mammals that are easy to see expressions on. Facial expressions are shared across humanity. A smile is a smile in any language. Our faces seem uniquely adapted for communication. Before we developed language, facial expressions may have been just as vital in communication as shouts and grunts. And we, of course, still use them today. But when it comes to facial expressions, it's not just about seeing other people's expressions and having them see yours. It's also about seeing your own. And the fact that our eyes are deep-set allows us to see our own facial expressions as we're making them. If you smile, you can see your own cheeks rise slightly. And if you furrow your brow, it encroaches on the top of your vision. These things give you instant feedback on the degree to which you are altering your face and tell you instantly what sort of expression you are putting out into the world. No mirror required. ♪ ♪ Some of the most interesting experiments on facial expressions have asked, "What comes first? The emotion or the facial expression?" Studies have found that if you hold a pencil between your teeth all day, you will have a better day. Why? Well, because holding a pencil between your teeth without your lips touching is like smiling. It uses pretty much the same muscles. Watch. [muffled] I don't know-- I don't know I'm smiling, but I am. Conversely, pursing your lips around the pencil is like frowning. And studies have found that if someone does that, they will actually report having a less good day. Well, we're gonna put that to the test and find out if the facial contortions you make can subconsciously affect how you feel. Studies on how physiology affects mood go as far back as the 1800s, with early research carried out by Charles Darwin and French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne. This work has continued into present day using various techniques to create smiles and frowns. But studies have been inconsistent as to whether facial expressions can influence emotions, so we wanted to see if we could demonstrate a correlation between the two. ♪ ♪ Hi. - Hi. - Come on in, guys. Chris, my name is Michael. Nice to meet you. My name is Michael. We've recruited 20 volunteers who think they're taking part in an allergy study. Today we are testing a new kind of dog food, and it actually seems to help dogs produce fewer allergens, so people who are allergic to dogs might be more comfortable around them. And we're going to be using these allergen sticks. Now, the purpose of this stick is to collect saliva to check the way your body reacts to possible allergens in the air. Put it between your teeth like that, okay? - Mm-hmm. - Okay. - Half of our participants will be unknowingly forced into a smile. Yeah, very simple. - Uh-huh. - The other half will unwittingly be forced to use their frown muscles. Watch. My teeth are together, and then--hmm. Got it? both: Mm-hmm. - We're gonna give the frowners and the smilers the same two tasks. Go ahead, and I'll see you guys soon. Will the people who were forced to frown rank each task lower than those made to smile? - Come on in. - To test their levels of happiness, our actor, Trin, gave our subjects a task everybody loves: puppy herding with lots and lots of puppies. First up are our smilers. - They're all wearing little tags. - Mm-hmm. - So your job is to line them up in alphabetical order. Once you got 'em all lined up, I'll snap a photo of you. - Okay. - And you got three minutes to do it. Starting now. - Hello. I know. - Make sure they're in alphabetical order. - They're naming the dogs. - She's having fun. - I just got the--oh! Don't go away. - [laughs] - Swap those two. - You got one minute left. - This looks like fun, but are they having even more fun because they're being forced to smile? - All right, get ready for the photo. [camera shutter clicks] - Our smilers are laughing and goofing around. - Fantastic. - Now, let's see how our frowners react to this fun task. - Three minutes. - [humming] - He's running away from you. - [groans] - The question is, will frowning emphasize the parts that aren't fun-- in your mind, at least. [dogs barking] - Oh, we lost F. Got one little strangler right over here. - Ugh! - If the frowners seem a bit frustrated herding puppies... - [mutters angrily] - How will they like their next task? - If you would each grab a pair of gloves. Are you comfortable handling dog feces? Okay. And we're also going to be looking at whether there are any protein deposits that have collected, um, in the fecal matter. - She's like, "Are you serious?" - So go ahead and spread it out on the table. - [stifled retching] - Ooh. Not happy. - And what you're looking for are small, hard deposits. - Not much indication that there's a smile trying to come through. - Hmm. - Okay, great. - [exhales] - Thank you, that'll do it. - Our frowners don't seem to be enjoying this assignment. Will the smilers have a different reaction? - Grab a pair of gloves. It may be easier to kind of smear it and spread it out. - The hypothesis is, that by smiling, they'll focus more on the funny aspects of what they're about to do. - [laughs] Yeah. - Oh, my God. - [laughs] [groans] Oh. - There's disgust in his eyes and his brow, but his mouth can't help but smile. - [chuckles] - Okay, great, guys. Thank you so much. Then, when you're ready, just follow me and we'll do a debrief with Mr. Stevens. - Okay. - Sure. - Hey, welcome back. Now, think about, um, organizing the puppies and taking a photo of them. - Mmm. - And how you felt. Tell me what you were thinking and feeling while you were doing that task. - I mean, the puppies are extremely cute. - Mm-hmm. - Can I keep one? Is it cool with you guys? - The dogs actually cooperated pretty well. - Mm-hmm? - I was able to put them in order. - They're amazing. - It wasn't stressful. - So on a scale of 1 to 10-- where 1 is you cannot tolerate it and 10, best day of your life-- how would you rank the puppy photo task? - I'm gonna say like a 9. - 10. - 8. - 8. - I'm gonna go with an 8. - A 9. - That's an average of 8.5 from our small sample of ten subjects who were forced to smile during the photo assignment. Now let's see how the frowners rated the same task. How did you feel while you were doing that? - Um, a little frustrated, to be honest with you, 'cause they kept moving around. - Well, it was difficult getting them to stay in place and put them in order. - How would you rank the photo taking task? - Mmm, 4. - About 4. - A 10. I love puppies. - Still a 10? - Yeah, me too. - I would go more on the middle ground, maybe like 5. - Many of the frowners reported feeling frustrated with this experience, tallying an average score of 7.4, more than a point lower than the smilers. Now let's talk about the poop checking job. - Very unpleasant. - It was disgusting. - How would you rank the poop checking task? - 1--it was a 1. - A 1? - It was for sure a 1. - 1. - A 4. - Is a zero possible? - Our frowning subjects averaged a low score of 1.9. The question is, did our smiling group feel any better about digging through poo? - It wasn't too uncomfortable. - It was sort of unexpected, but it wasn't like it bothered me. - I wasn't, like, disgusted like, "Ew! This is disgusting!" I just kind of held my breath. - Many of our smilers reported this unpleasant task as being no big deal or actually funny. - I'd say a 5 because it wasn't-- neither here nor there for me. - It was a 5. - A high 4. - 5, I guess. - A 5? Okay. - 5, right in the middle. - The average score for the smiling group was 4.3 out of 10. Smilers enjoyed sifting through poop an average of 2 1/2 points more than our frowners. And have a great day. - Have fun with your poop. - [laughs] I will. I always do. ♪ ♪ Our test found that people who made smile faces enjoyed tasks more, and those who frowned enjoyed them less. This facial feedback concept is still being debated though. And other studies have recently failed to reproduce these findings. But it's a very healthy thing that we don't just look at one test and say, "Well, that's it. That must be the truth.