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  • TONY VOELLM: I head up the Google Cloud Security

  • Performance and Test Team.

  • I've been working on Cloud for over two

  • years now up in Seattle.

  • And don't let my title fool you.

  • It says "Engineering Manager," but managers

  • at Google are different.

  • I really do get my hands down in the code.

  • In fact, I checked something in last week, and about five

  • minutes later, somebody on my team fixed it and checked it

  • in again, so.

  • [LAUGHTER]

  • TONY VOELLM: I've done a bunch for Cloud.

  • Some of the things that are externally visible for Cloud

  • is I created the Google Compute Engine Units--

  • GCEUs.

  • And we'll talk more about what Google

  • Compute Engine is later.

  • Being the engineer I am, I thought, wow, GCEU, it's

  • really cool.

  • We should call that GQs, because who doesn't want GQs--

  • or, which engineer doesn't want to be GQ.

  • And now you know why I'm an engineer.

  • OK, great.

  • So here's what we're going to do.

  • We're going to talk about cloud computing.

  • So I'm going to take a quick step back, talk a little bit

  • about what cloud computing is.

  • I'll take you through some history about how we got to

  • where we are today in 2013.

  • This is a history of cloud computing.

  • Then I will definitely take you through the Google Cloud.

  • I'll give you pivots of what the Google Cloud looks like,

  • how we think about it, how the industry thinks about it.

  • I'll run through a series of demos.

  • And then, to prove I'm an engineer, I'm going to take

  • you through the pitfalls.

  • And this is how you know I'm not a marketing person,

  • because a, my slides are not pretty; and b, I'm going to

  • tell you why things may not work for you

  • from time to time.

  • And in the end, I'll just wrap it up with

  • the Team and questions.

  • So with that, let's dive in.

  • So what is cloud computing?

  • It's a good question.

  • I had this question two years ago.

  • And in fact, I probably still have this question today.

  • But one of things that I did to try to figure out what this

  • industry is, is I started looking different places.

  • I go do web research, Google search.

  • I looked up at How Stuff Works, and they had a really

  • interesting definition.

  • They talk about remote machines owned by another

  • company, and like maybe your email and word processing

  • would be out there.

  • And this seems like a really dated definition, but it's

  • actually still fairly accurate.

  • I did things like go out to conferences, because there are

  • several conferences that happen throughout the year

  • around cloud computing.

  • And in there, you'll see interesting terms, like Hadoop

  • elastic environments, grid software--

  • there's all these terms that start to pop up.

  • I even went out and started to survey my peers at Google,

  • like, what do you think cloud computing is?

  • And you can see down here, they start talking about, oh,

  • it's this computation that you can do in the cloud.

  • You don't have to worry about stuff.

  • So what I did is I said, OK, well, with any definition,

  • let's pull together the properties of cloud computing,

  • because there's certain things we're hearing often in these

  • definitions.

  • You know, one was nothing--

  • nobody cares where it is.

  • Everything's accessed over a network.

  • So cloud computing is something that

  • happens in the network.

  • That's sort of like the beginning of what cloud

  • computing is.

  • The second part is a really important

  • part, which is utility.

  • You can turn it on or off.

  • You pay for what you use.

  • And when it's not on, you turn it off.

  • It's like a light switch.

  • So if I want a database now, I have a database.

  • And if I don't want a database in five minutes from now, I

  • turn it off, and I'm not paying for it.

  • There's an elastic component where resources grow and

  • shrink on demand.

  • And you've seen this many times across like YouTube

  • scalability.

  • We broadcast the Olympics.

  • And whether one user is watching, or 8 million users

  • are watching, it all seems to work.

  • And so there's this elastic component on the cloud that.

  • grows and shrinks on demand.

  • For sure, it's programmable.

  • Programability is an important aspect of Cloud.

  • And then access control models.

  • So here's where there's some pieces we'll talk about later,

  • where like software as a service, versus you developing

  • your own code.

  • And platform and infrastructure as a service

  • layers, where access models are different.

  • There's some models where the end user owns the control, and

  • there's some where the person providing the

  • service owns the control.

  • But there's some method of controlling

  • access to data and resources.

  • And while not required, there's this thing that often

  • comes up, which is multi-tenant.

  • Your workloads run side-by-side

  • with somebody else's.

  • Some companies, this can be concerning--

  • why is Company A and Company B running on the same server?

  • We're competitors.

  • We don't want our data anywhere near each other.

  • And it's really the cloud providers that create this

  • partition or this barrier between those workloads.

  • So there's no flow of data from one to the other.

  • And this is called multi-tenancy.

  • So I tried to be really smart.

  • I'm like, OK, that sounds really good.

  • So let me give a definition of cloud computing that tries to

  • roll in all these sources of information.

  • And my definition is it's a set of programmable resources

  • that's pay-per-use.

  • It happens over a network.

  • It's elastic.

  • And it removes the developer from having to worry about the

  • hardware resources, the operating system, or all these

  • minutias that she doesn't want to worry about.

  • And she can just focus on delivering the application

  • that she wants.

  • And it's there, and it grows and shrinks on demand.

  • So that's my definition.

  • So that's cloud computing in a nutshell.

  • So here's a little mini-quiz.

  • So I'll just take a quick show hands.

  • I'm only going to go through a couple of questions to see if

  • things are already resonating with everybody here.

  • So is Gmail cloud computing?

  • Yes.

  • It could depend on perspective.

  • One perspective is Gmail is a hosted software service that

  • companies can buy.

  • You can buy Gmail.

  • And for some nominal fee per month, you can host your

  • mailbox there.

  • So on the upper end of software as a service--

  • this is where Google started--

  • yes, Gmail, I would say, is cloud computing.

  • Now what about hosting Python applications.

  • Is that--

  • show of hands-- is that cloud computing?

  • Yes.

  • Yeah, it has the programmable aspect we talked about.

  • It's elastic.

  • This is where Google App Engine enters the picture.

  • Here, let's try one more.

  • Are physical servers hosted by a hoster--

  • is that cloud computing?

  • Yeah, it depends.

  • Yeah, this is the one that gets sort of tricky is--

  • if you can on demand request these servers, and have them

  • go away on demand, then you sort of enter into the cloud

  • computing, versus just pure hosting.

  • We tried this whole thing in the '90s called application

  • hosting and server hosting.

  • And so, what's different today is this

  • whole elastic component.

  • And you might be thinking already, like,

  • why is all this important?

  • Why is this definition of cloud computing important?

  • And so I asked that question, too, actually.

  • Like, why is this important?

  • And so, I went out, and I found this "Forbes" article.

  • And I realized that not only can Google help you find

  • dating sites, we can also help you on your dates.

  • Where it says, "some fake it to make it," where there's 17%

  • of us, apparently, that on our first dates lie and tell

  • people we know what cloud computing is.

  • So I'm here to help you with your dating.

  • That's really what this is all about.

  • So cloud computing.

  • OK, so let's go back.

  • So let's go back and let's talk a

  • little bit about history.

  • So computers--

  • they've been there for a while.

  • Almost 60 plus years now.

  • Hard to believe we've lived with technology that long.

  • But in 1961, John McCarthy, also sort of dubbed as The

  • Father of AI, was living in a world where there were very

  • few computers relative to today.

  • There were 6,000 computers.

  • And he had this thought.

  • He said, computation one day will be a utility.

  • For him, this was really important, because there were

  • so few of them, and it was a constrained resource.

  • But it kind of made sense.

  • He was predicting the future, that one day we

  • will get to a utility.

  • Now the way we got there is very different

  • than perhaps he expected.

  • But nonetheless, some credit goes to him in terms of

  • thinking about, yes, computers could be a utility one day.

  • But before we could get there, something had to happen.

  • We had to have the internet happen.

  • We didn't have an internet in 1961.

  • We had some sort of point-to-point stuff.

  • People were trying things out.

  • But it wasn't until 1969 that ARPANET, the predecessor to

  • the internet, happened.

  • And at the time, transfer speed between computers was 50

  • kilobits a second.

  • And to give you an idea of what that actually means,

  • because it's hard to sometimes think about all these bits--

  • your cell phone's about 2000 times faster than computers

  • could talk to each other back in 1969.

  • Some other things had to happen.

  • We had to have the microprocessor revolution.

  • That started roughly in 1971.

  • And so after the microprocessor revolution, the

  • internet's kind of there.

  • We have these acoustic couplers and modems.

  • In the '80s, we have the BBS era.

  • This is where you have laptops.

  • They were called luggables.

  • You'd carry them around like this.

  • They were like 67 pounds, or something like that.

  • This is an example, it's the Kaypro.

  • But something interesting happened where services

  • started to show up, like CompuServe and GENie.

  • And you would dial up, and for $0.10 a minute, you could

  • access this super awesome service.

  • And all you wanted to do was find out where

  • the free BBS was.

  • So you could go connect to this free thing, and start to

  • share files or data.

  • And so you'd go connect up to something, like Koala Country,

  • which was free.

  • And so there was this whole sort of culture around the

  • internet starting to happen--

  • connectivity, sharing.

  • Data should be universally accessible.

  • So roll time forward a little bit.

  • So from the '80s, if that was our BBS era, we really needed

  • the '90s to happen, because these are pretty important to

  • where we are today.

  • So in '93, if you can believe it, this

  • is the Mosaic browser.

  • It was first to enter in the scene, and make the internet a

  • lot more accessible.

  • Prior to that, we all ran LAN line tools, like Archie and