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  • I do believe that humanity has reached a crossroad.

    21世紀は岐路に立つ世界を明かしている

  • I hate to exaggerate that, and I don't want it to sound sensational, but I think it's true.

    人類は岐路に至り着いたと信じる

  • I think our species, the species of human beings is coming to a place where we are deciding about ourselves.

    誇張したくも驚かすつもりもないが それは真実だと思う

  • We are making a huge decision about "Who are we?" and "Who do we really choose to be?"

    人類 人間の種は 自分たち自身を決める地点に来ている

  • "Who are we?" and "Who do we really choose to be?"

    我々は何者か? 誰になる事を本当に選択するのか? 重大な決断をしている

  • "Who are we?" and "Who do we really choose to be?"

    我々は何者か? 誰になる事を本当に選択するのか?

  • We imagine that the issue is a political issue.

    我々は何者か? 誰になる事を本当に選択するのか?

  • Then we say, "Ah, well it must be a financial problem."

    我々は問題が政治にあると思う

  • The problem is not political and it's not financial. And it's also, by the way, not military, ...obviously.

    そして“それは財政問題に違いない”と言う

  • Circumstances don't determine who you are, they reveal who you are.

    問題は明らかに政治的でも財政的でも軍事的でもない

  • And the world that we live in now, the circumstances are changing so rapidly, that we're being revealed.

    周囲の事情で“何者か”は決まらない それは“何者か”を明らかにする

  • There's no such thing as a problem. A problem is essentially a transition.

    現在の世界の状況は急速に変化していて 我々は明かされている

  • So, I see the crises of today as a transition point for humanity.

    問題というものはない 問題は基本的に“移り変わり”だ

  • Look down on the human drama, and discern through your critical faculties what's going on, without judging it,

    従って今日の危機を人類の“転換点”として見ている

  • just discern, 'What is this human drama about right now, and what role can I best play in it?'

    人間ドラマを見下ろし 何が起きているのか決めつけずに 批判力を通じて認識して下さい

  • The latest global risks report, published by the World Economic Forum,

    この現在の人間ドラマが何についてか その中で何の役を一番うまく演じれるか だた認識して下さい

  • presents an astonishing "Risks Interconnection Map."

    クロスロード

  • It clearly reveals how all global risks are inter-related and interwoven,

    クロスロード 新しい世界観の陣痛

  • so that economic, environmental, geopolitical, social, and technological risks are hugely interdependent.

    ジョセフ・オハヨン 映画

  • A crisis in one area will quickly lead to a crisis in other areas.

    “我々が直面する重大な問題は 問題を引き起こした同じ思考レベルで解決する事はできない” −アルバート・アインシュタイン

  • The interconnection and complexity in this map, compared to our surprise at the impact and speed of the recent financial crises,

    相互依存

  • illustrates the discord that exists between all systems we built, and shows just how disconnected we've become.

    Dave Sherman博士:事業戦略家 持続可能性の専門家 世界経済フォーラムが出版した最新のグローバルリスク報告書は

  • Our attempts at managing these systems are fragmented and simplistic, and not up to the challenges that we face today.

    驚くべき“リスク相互連結マップ”を提示してる

  • The way we use natural resources is based on our economic system,

    それは どのように全ての世界的なリスクが関連し合い 織り合わさってるか明確に示している

  • which is closely related to our social values,

    従って経済的リスク 環境的リスク 地政学的リスク 社会的リスク 技術的リスクは大いに相互依存している

  • which directly affect our psychological and emotional systems, and all our actions.

    1つの分野の危機はすぐに別分野の危機を引き起こす

  • What we see in the world is a reflection of who we are.

    このマップの相互連結と複雑さは 最近の経済危機の衝撃と速度に対する驚きと比較して

  • You cannot separate what's happening in the world, and what's happening within people.

    我々の作った全システムの間に存在する不和を説明し 我々がどれほど分離するようになったかを示している

  • So we're not just in crisis in politics, or in economics.

    これらのシステムを管理する試みはバラバラで過度に単純化しているため現在直面している問題に及んでない

  • Human beings are now in crisis with themselves.

    天然資源の使い方は経済システムに基づく

  • When I studied biocybernetics, it was a wonder to see that the more we delve into naturethe animal kingdom, plant life ecosystems,

    それは社会的価値観と密接に関わり

  • we see that everything is interconnected through reciprocal actions, some of which we understand, some of which we still don't.

    心理システムと感情システムと全行動に直接的に影響を及ぼす

  • But now, human society is also becoming so integrated that it's like a single, closed system that encompasses the entire globe.

    世界で目にするものは我々の正体を映し出している Jairon G Cuesta:社会人類学者 心理療法士

  • The crisis we are facing now is actually very unique.

    世界中で起きている事は内面で起きている事と切り離せない

  • We are all closed together in the same system, and we can no longer do whatever we want in it.

    従って危機に陥っているのは政治と経済だけではない

  • World leaders, presidents, have lost the ability to manage the people.

    人類は自分達自身との危機に陥っている

  • It's as though the world began to move without any reins,

    Michael Laitman博士:バイオサイバネティックス 存在論 私がバイオサイバネティクスを学んだ時 自然を掘り下げて研究すればするほど 動物界 植物 生態系

  • but rather according to a new lawof interdependence, of connectionthe law that is characteristic of integral systems.

    全てが 理解されているものと未知の相互作用を通じて相互連結している事が分かり 不思議に思った

  • And here we see that world leaders, first of all can't even make decisions, whether it's G8 or G20,

    しかし現在 人間社会も地球全体を網羅する1つの閉鎖系のように統合されつつある

  • and even if they arrive at something, they can't realize it.

    我々が直面している危機は実はとても独特だ

  • In science, we started as Newtonian physicists, and we started pretending like we are machines, and that was the worldview for some time.

    我々は皆一緒に同じシステムの中に閉じ込められ もはやどんな好きな事もできないでいる

  • That changed with biologists coming along. Biology gives a different view of the human being altogether.

    世界的な指導者たち 大統領たちは人々を管理する能力を失った

  • Biology says that we are machines, but we are machines with competition, with survival in mind, and we fight for our survival, we compete.

    <2011年1月 チュニジア>

  • So our higher values are important only if they're important for survival. Outside of survival, there is no other impetus for the human being.

    <2011年2月 エジプト>

  • And because of this idea, we have become, as you know, extremely competitive in our society. If somebody else has something, I must get it.

    <2011年3月 スペイン>

  • If somebody else doesn't have it yet, I must get it before he or she gets it. This idea is causing havoc in our society.

    <2011年3月 イギリス> まるで世界が束縛なく動き始めたようだ

  • Much of our progress in human civilization has been driven by egoistic competition. People try to outdo each other, and that creates better science, better technology, etc.

    <2011年5月 ギリシャ> いや むしろ相互連結 つながりの新法則に従っている <2011年6月 チリ> それは統合したシステムの属性でもある法則だ

  • However, now we're at a point where this ego drive has become so extreme that it will stop at nothing in order to be more, or have more, than others.

    <2011年7月 イスラエル>

  • And so companies are destroying the ecosystem, bankers are creating economic crisis, people are building themselves on the ruin of others.

    <2011年8月 インド> この事について世界的な指導者たちはまず第一にG8・G20であっても決断さえできない

  • Our food supplies are increasingly at risk. Water resources are increasingly being strained, and our financial systems continue to be highly volatile and risky.

    <2011年9月 米国>

  • At the same time, we're also discovering how all our systems are connected and interdependent. Clearly, business-as-usual is a dead end.

    仮に何かを決断したとしても 実現化に至らない

  • In the previous days and times, we've been involved, not exclusively but largely, in the process of individual survival:

    エゴの進化

  • how do I get through the day, how do I get through the week, how do I get through the month.

    Amit Goswami博士:理論量子物理学者 科学はニュートン物理学から始まり 人間は機械であると説き しばらくの間それが世界観だった

  • In the 21st century, we're learning now that we can no longer concentrate on individual survival strategies;

    それは生物学者が現れて変わった 生物学は人間に対し全く違う見解を与える

  • that unless we begin to coalesce those strategies and learn how we can survive collectively, that no individual is going to survive in the long run.

    生物学は“我々は機械だが 競争する機械 生き延びる事を考える機械 生き延びるために闘って競争する”と説く

  • Again, I don't want to be an alarmist, but I realize that we are facing a very critical time now.

    従って高い価値観は生き延びるために重要な場合に限り重要で 生き延びる以外に人間を動かすものはない

  • The separation theology that humanity has established through the years has created a separation cosmology,

    この概念が原因で 知っての通り我々は社会的に非常に競争心が強くなり 他人が何かを持っているなら 自分もそれを持たなくてはならなく

  • that is a cosmological way of looking at things that says 'everything is severed from everything else.'

    まだ誰も持っていないなら 誰かが持つ前に自分が持たなくてはならない この概念が社会で大混乱を引き起こしている

  • And the separation cosmology has produced a separation sociology, that is a way of socializing with each other that says

    人類文明の進歩の大部分は 利己的な競争によって動かされてきた 人々は競争し合い より優れた科学や技術などを生み出した

  • 'I'm over here, and you're over there, and our interests will not meet, unless they do.

    しかし今やこのエゴの原動力が 非常に強くなったため他者より多く持つためなら 他者以上になるためなら 手段を選ばない所にまで来た

  • If they do we'll try to cooperate, but if our interests do not meet, if we have separate interests,

    従って企業は生態系を破壊し 銀行員は経済危機を作り出し 人々は他者の犠牲の上に生活を築いている <企業は精神病質者だ>

  • I may just have to harm you, I may in fact just have to kill you.'

    食料供給はますます危険にさらされ 水資源はますます消費され 経済システムは依然として極めて不安定で危険だ

  • There's an old story of a grandfather who's speaking to his grandson in the lodge.

    同時に全システムがどれほど連結し相互依存しているのか発見されてる 明らかに従来通りのビジネスは行き詰まる

  • The grandson comes in and says, 'I had a dream last night, and in the dream there were two wolves inside fighting,

    <世界的な崩壊:MIT研究者が我々の承知しているようなこの世の終わりを予測>

  • and one was a black wolf, and one was a white wolf, and the black wolf scared me, Grandfather, and the white wolf made me feel hopeful.

    かつて我々は それだけではないが 主に個人の生き残りのプロセスに関与してきた

  • Which one will survive?' And the grandfather said, 'The one you feed the most.'

    Neale D. Walsch:作家 どうやって今日を 今週を 今月を生き抜こうかと

  • And so, to me that is the nature of humanity, the nature of humans, is we have both.

    21世紀ではもはや個人の生き残り戦略に集中する事ができないと学びつつある

  • Which one we're going to feed the most is the one we're going to see in the world.

    それらの戦略を融合させて集団的に生き残る方法を学ばない限り 長期的には誰も生き残らない

  • The Asch experiment is one of psychology's oldest and most popular pieces of research.

    人騒がせな人にはなりたくないが 現在とても危機的な時期に直面してると実感している

  • A volunteer is told that he's taking part in a visual perception test.

    長年に渡って人類が作り出した“分離神論”は “分離宇宙論”を生み出した

  • What he doesn't know is that the other participants are actors and he's the only person taking part in the real test, which is actually about group conformity.

    それは“全てがその他の全てから分離している”と説く宇宙論的な物事の見方

  • Please begin. The experiment you will be taking part in today involves the perception of line length.

    そして“分離宇宙論”は“分離社会学”を生んだ それはこう互いに付き合う方法だ

  • The task will be simply to look at the line here on the left and indicate which of the three lines on the right is equal to it in length.

    私がここにいて あなたがそこにいて 利益が一致しない

  • The actors have been told to match the wrong lines.

    利益が一致するなら 協力を試みるが 一致しないなら我々には別々の狙いがあり 私は仕方なくあなたに危害を加えるかもしれない 実のところ殺すかもしれない

  • The volunteer will be monitored to see if he gives the correct answer or if he goes along with the opinion of the group and gives the wrong answer.

    黒い狼 白い狼

  • In the first test, the correct answer is two.

    古い物語があり 山小屋で祖父が孫に語っている

  • 'Uh, one'....'one'.... 'one'. .......the volunteer answers, 'It's two'...... 'one'

    孫が入って来てこう言う “昨夜夢を見た 夢の中で二匹の狼がうちで争ってた”

  • Once again, the correct answer is two.

    “一匹は黒い狼 もう一匹は白い狼 黒い狼は怖かった おじいちゃん 白い狼は希望を抱かせた”

  • 'Three.....'three'.....three.... the volunteer answers 'three'.....'three'

    “どっちが生き残るの?” “最も餌を与える方だ”と祖父は言った

  • The Asch conformity experiment has been repeated many times. It's been suggested that first, the distortion happens at the level of action.

    それが人間の本質 人間性にはその両方があると思う John St. Augustine:ラジオパーソナリティ・作家

  • The subject believes the others are wrong, yet goes along with them anyway. Then it happens at the level of judgment.

    最も餌を与える方が世界で見られるようになる John St. Augustine:ラジオパーソナリティ・作家

  • The subject begins to think, 'Maybe they're seeing something I'm not seeing.'

    1951年 アッシュの実験

  • And then, it happens at the level of perception, which means that the subject's actual perception of what's right or wrong is distorted by the majority.

    アッシュの実験は心理学の最も古くて人気のある調査の1つだ

  • Now, when you link these conclusions to what's happening in the world today, you have to ask,

    被験者は視覚認知のテストに参加すると伝えられる

  • 'In what way have we been using the influence of society, which is probably the most powerful force in human psychology?'

    彼が知らないのは 他の参加者がサクラで 彼だけが本当の実験 集団適合(同調)の実験に参加するということ

  • Over 40 years ago, I was cloning stem cells and one of the first experiments just so blew my mind

    始めます 今日の実験は線の長さの知覚を対象とし

  • that it really changed the whole course of my education and my life.

    単にこの左の線を見て 右の3つの線のうちどれが同じ長さか選んで下さい

  • I put one stem cell in a culture dish all by itself and that stem cell divides every ten to twelve hours.

    サクラには間違った線を選ぶよう伝えてある

  • After about a week to ten days, I had thousands of cells in the petri dish, but what's most important is all the cells are genetically identical to each other.

    被験者は 正しい答えを与えるのかそれとも集団の意見に従って間違った答えを与えるのか監視される

  • And then what I didand this is the experiment-I separated the culture of genetically identical cells into three different petri dishes and I changed the environment.

    一回目の実験 正解は2

  • But, the culture medium to cells is like the world that we live in: it's got the the air, the water, the food, all the things in it.

    “1”

  • So I had three different environments, yet genetically identical cells in each dish.

    “1”

  • The results revealed that in environment A, the cells formed muscle,

    “1”

  • in environment B, the cells formed bone,

    被験者の答え・・・

  • and in environment C, the cells formed fat cells.

    “2”

  • What was so profoundly important about this is that if you ask the questionWhat is responsible for controlling the fate of the cells?

    “1”

  • what the experiment clearly revealed was that all the cells were genetically identical.

    またしても 正解は2

  • The only thing that was different from one dish to the other dish was the environment.

    “3”

  • So, while at the time I was teaching medical students the conventional story out of the textbook, the concept of genetic determinism that genes control our fate and our lives,

    “3”

  • my experiments revealed a completely different story, and that was that environment the was primarily responsible and shaping the behavior and genetics.

    “3”

  • There's new research out of Harvard Medical School about social contagion.

    被験者の答え・・・

  • I think it's kind of obvious and intuitive that you catch the moods of people around you,

    “3”

  • but now they're finding that people get fat in groups, they get happy in groups, they quit smoking in groups.

    “3”

  • Nicholas Christakis and I have been very fortunate to find a resource in the Framingham Heart Study that we never imagined we could find.

    アッシュの同調実験は 何度も繰り返され 提唱されてるのは 最初に行為のレベルで歪みが生じること

  • They were asking people for thirty-two years, 'who are your family members? where do you work? where do you live?'

    1)行為

  • And most importantly, 'who are your friends?' For the first time, now that we have data like this,

    被験者は他者が間違っていると思っても とにかく他者に従う その次に判断のレベルで生じる

  • we are able to get a bird's eye view of networks like the networks that you live in.

    2)判断

  • We had some validated measures of various emotions, including happiness, and what we attempted to show, and were able to show,

    被験者は“もしかして自分の見てないものを見てるのかも”と考え始める

  • is that my happiness depends not just on my own actions, thoughts and behaviors, but also on the actions, thoughts and behaviors of the people to whom I'm directly connected-

    その次に知覚のレベルで生じる 3)知覚 それは被験者の是非の認知が大多数によって歪むこと

  • my friends, siblings, spouses, neighbors, coworkers and so forth, and the people to whom they are connected, and the people even to whom they are connected.

    これらの結論を今日の世界で起きている事に関連させると 疑問が生じる

  • What this finding is showing us is that it's not just behaviors that are spreading through networks,

    “どのように我々はおそらく人間の心理で最も強い力である社会の影響を利用してきたのか?”

  • it's also these emotional states that are spreading through networks.

    1967年 生物環境の影響 幹細胞実験

  • So we think that what's spreading is this tendency to transmit ideas, these norms of behavior.

    40年以上前 私は幹細胞からクローンを作っていた 初期実験の1つにひどく驚いた

  • You are, in fact, are a social organism. You are created by your environment. There is no 'you' and there is no 'me.'

    Bruce Lipton博士:細胞生物学者

  • Once you begin to think about how everything you do has been taught to you, one way or another

    私の一生と教育の方向をすっかり変えた

  • granted you're putting things together and you're making decisionsbut your decisions are limited to the information that's been given to you and that you've learned.

    幹細胞の1個だけを培養皿に入れた 幹細胞は10〜12時間おきに分裂する

  • So I'm a walking amalgam of a 'social engineering' so to speak. If I see myself as separate from everything else, that I can say is incorrect.

    約1週間から10日後 ペトリ皿の中の細胞は数千個になった 最も重要なのは全細胞が遺伝学的に同一であること

  • For example, everyone knows they have to breathe. Through time, people will begin to understand that their integrity is only as good as the integrity of everything else around them.

    実験で何をしたかと言うと 私は遺伝学的に同一の培養物を環境の異なるペトリ皿3枚に取り分けた

  • So what is happening in science is really quite pathetic, and what is happening in the public at large is also equally pathetic,

    細胞にとって 培地とは我々が暮らす世界に似ていて 空気 水 食料 全てがその中にある

  • because what is happening, is that by pretending to be something, we are becoming that something.

    よって3つの異なる環境だか 遺伝学的に同一の細胞

  • I began to feel that I was losing my identity, that the person I call Clay, the person who put me in this place, the person who volunteered to go into this prison

    結果が明らかにしたのは 環境A:細胞は筋肉を形成

  • because it was a prison to me; it still is a prison to me—I don't look on it as an experiment or a simulation.

    環境B:細胞は骨を形成

  • It was a prison that was run by psychologists instead of run by the state.

    環境C:細胞は脂肪細胞を形成

  • In 1971, today's well-known psychologist Philip Zimbardo decided to examine what would happen if you take perfectly normal and healthy young students

    これの極めて重要な事は“何が細胞の運命を握っているのか?”という疑問だ

  • and create a prison-like environment within Stanford University, and tell them, "For the next two weeks, some of you will act as prisoners, and some of you will act as guards."

    <何が細胞の運命を握っているのか?>

  • One day into the experiment, a riot broke out. The guards began humiliating the prisoners. They used physical punishments.

    実験が明らかにした事は 全細胞が遺伝学的に同一で <同じ遺伝的特徴>

  • Some became extremely sadistic. The prisoners began to have emotional breakdowns.

    唯一の違いが皿の環境だけということ <違う環境>

  • Some had to be removed from the study early, and after only six days, the experiment had to be completely shut down.

    一方その時 私は医学生に教科書からの従来の 話しを教えていた 運命と人生は遺伝子によって コントロールされるという“遺伝子決定論”だ

  • I had really thought that I wasn't capable of this kind of behavior. I was surprised... no, I was dismayed.

    私の実験は全く違う事を明らかにした 環境が行為と遺伝的特徴を決定する主な原因であること

  • to find out that I could really be a... that I could act in a manner so absolutely unaccustomed to anything that I would even really dream of doing.

    <環境が行為と遺伝的特徴を決定する>

  • And while I was doing it, I didn't feel any regret. I didn't feel any guilt.

    社会網分析 最近の発見

  • It was only afterwards, when I began to reflect on what I had done,

    Caroline Miller:ポジティブ心理学

  • that this behavior began to dawn on me and I realized that this was a part of me I hadn't really noticed before.

    ハーバード大学医学部は “社会的感染”の新研究を行ってる

  • By pretending to be something, we are becoming that something.

    周りの人の気分が伝染する事は 何だか明白で直感的な事だと思う

  • By pretending that we are mindless matter-we're just material and that's it-we are excluding the finer aspects of life,

    しかし現在 人々が集団で太り 集団で幸せになり 集団でタバコをやめる事が発見されてる

  • we are excluding the finer aspects of our experience. And, this is very serious business.

    James Fowler博士:社会科学者

  • If you take Darwinian theory, which says that we're in a competition and we have to compare each other as to where we fit,

    ニコラス・クリスタキスと私は 幸運にもフラミンガム心臓研究で 絶対に見つからないような資料を見つけた

  • and you mix that with a Newtonian vision from physics that the primacy of the universe is found in the physical structure.

    彼らは“家族は誰? 職場はどこ? どこに住んでる?”と32年間も質問していた

  • Then you put those two together and you say, 'How do you know where you fit in the Darwinian world?' And the answer is, 'How much material do you own?'

    最も重要な質問は“友達は誰?” 初めてその時 このようなデータを入手し

  • And so, evolution of humanity since Newtonian times was to extract the material from the planet so that we could have possessions,

    我々の暮らすネットワークが鳥瞰できた

  • and that the possessions then were a reflection of where we stand in the hierarchy.

    幸福を含む様々な感情の有効な測定値があった 我々が示そうとするもの 示せるものとは

  • If you were very low in the hierarchy of human life, you have nothing. If you're very high in the hierarchy of human life,

    自分の幸福が 自分の活動 考え 振る舞いのみでなく 直接的に関係の ある人々のそれらによっても決まること

  • you have money and possessions and houses and toys and all these things. So then you say, 'Well, who suffers from all this?'

    友達 兄弟 配偶者 近所のひと 同僚など そして それらの人々につながりのある人 さらにそれらの人々につながりのある人によっても決まる

  • Well, there's great suffering at every level, whether suffering in the physical planet, or in the human civilization, there's suffering all over.

    この発見が示す事は ネットワークを通じて 行為だけが広がるのではなく これらの 感情状態もネットワークを通じて広がること

  • In order for me as a human to prove my hierarchy, I have to extract the material from the planet. So what do I do?

    従って広まっているものとはこれらのアイデア・行動規範を発信しようとする傾向と考える

  • I mine the planet; I rape the planet of all of its possessions so that I can hold in my hand this chunk of gold and say, 'See how much I am worth! Where's your gold?'

    実際上 誰もが社会有機体で社会環境によって作られる “あなた”も“わたし”も存在しない

  • The theory of evolution is not based on community but based on the individual. Newtonian physics said it's only the visible things that are relevant.

    Peter Joseph:映画製作者 活動家 全てあなたのする事が 何らかの方法で教え込まれたと思い始めると

  • But in a world based on quantum physics, which is based on energy, some of the things that we understand in the nature of energy are emotions and feeling, such as love and beauty.

    仮に考えをまとめて決断したとしても その決断は与えられた情報と習得したもので制限されている

  • These are expressions of energy, and in a world of quantum physics, we surely emphasize more the nature of love, feelings, energy, beauty and harmony

    従って私はいわば“社会工学”の歩く混合物だ 自分が他の全てから切り離されてると見なすなら それは間違ってる

  • over the money and material expressions that we look at today. Why is this important?

    例えば 皆は呼吸しなければならない事を知っている 時間とともに人々は自分達の誠実さが 周りの他の全ての誠実さによって決まると理解し始める

  • Because then you look at the world and you say, 'Do you want a pound of gold, or do you want to be totally in love in your life?'

    従って科学に起きている事は実に哀れで 一般大衆に起きている事も同様に哀れだ

  • This is a painting known as, "The Supper at Emmaus," and in the 1940s, when it was thought to be painted by Johann Vermeer,

    なぜなら起きている事は 我々が何かのふりをする事によってその何かになっているということ 何かのふりをする事によってその何かになっている

  • it was worth millions of dollars-it was literally priceless. It was in Holland and it one of the most renowned paintings in Europe. People would travel through Europe to see it.

    1971年 スタンフォード監獄実験

  • Until one terrible day, when it was discovered that it was not painted by Vermeer at all, but by the great forger Van Meegeren.

    自分のアイデンティティを失っていると感じ始めた 私がクレイと呼んでいる人 私をこの場所に入れた人 この監獄に進んで被験者として入った人

  • In other words, it was discovered that it was not this painting, but

    自分にとって監獄だったからだ 未だに監獄だ 実験あるいはシミュレーションとは思わない

  • that painting, and all of a sudden its value dropped to nothing.

    それは州でなく心理学者が運営する監獄だった

  • How you taste something is critically affected by what you believe you're eating. And this shows up in all sorts of ways.

    1971年 現在では有名な心理学者フィリップ・ジムバルドーは 全く正常で健康な若い生徒達を選び スタンフォード大学内に監獄のような環境を作り

  • One nice finding involves children. How do you get children, not just to to eat their carrots and drink milk, but after they have the carrots and milk,

    彼らに“この先二週間 何人かに受刑者 何人かに看守を演じてもらう”と告げ 何が起きるのか調査する事を決めた

  • to report that they tasted good. Better than your normal carrot. Better than your normal glass of milk?

    実験開始後 一日で暴動が発生し 看守は受刑者に屈辱を与え始め体罰を行った

  • It's actually terribly simple to do this. This was done in a study a couple of years ago.

    何人かは極度に加虐的になり 受刑者達はノイローゼになり始めた

  • You take them out from a McDonald's bag.

    何人かは予定より早く実験から離脱しなくてはならなくなり ほんの6日間で実験は完全に中止された

  • They get people in a brain scanner, and as they're lying on their back, there's a tube going into their mouth.

    看守役 二ヶ月後

  • And they get to drink wine through the tube while their brains are being scanned.

    私がこのような行動ができるとは本当に思ってなかった 驚いた いや 愕然とした

  • Above them is a screen where they can read information about the wine that they're drinking. Everybody drinks the same wine.

    自分が本当にそうなると知ってしまったこと 自分が本当にしようとさえ思ってもみなかった 全く不慣れなこと そのように行動できたこと

  • If they think they're drinking the cheap stuff, they'll report, 'Eh, it doesn't taste so good,' and they'll have a low-level neural response.

    そうしている間 私は何も後悔しなかった 少しも罪悪感を感じなかった

  • If they think they're drinking out of a $200 bottle, they say they love it and the pleasure centers of their brain light up like a Christmas tree.

    後でようやく自分のした事を回想した時に後悔した

  • This is John Cage's work. It comes in a different name, but it's often called 4 minutes 33 seconds,

    この行為は今まで気付かなかった 自分の心の一部であると実感した

  • because it was a famous modern performance, where the pianist is instructed to sit at the piano and be silent for 4 minutes and 33 seconds.

    何かのふりをする事によってその何かになっている

  • Now, as you can imagine, this is fairly controversial-whether or not this is brilliant or just ridiculous.

    思慮のない物質(我々が単なる物質でしかないこと)のふりをする事により 人生と経験の細かい側面を排除している これはとても深刻な問題だ

  • But, my favorite fact about this is you can go onto I Tunes and you can buy,

    物質 対 意味

  • for a $1.99, the entire thing of 4 minutes and 33 seconds, which is of course silent.

    我々は競争して互いにどこに適しているのか比べ合わなくてはならないと説くダーウィン説を手に取って

  • And, I've read commentaries on this, where people are outraged, 'Look just turn down the volume on your computer,and sit there for 4 minutes and 33 seconds.'

    それを宇宙の優位性が物質的構造にあると説く物理学におけるニュートンの洞察と混ぜるとするなら

  • But, psychologically I think that wouldn't be the same silence. This is 'that' silence, from 'that' performance.

    “どうすればダーウィンの世界で自分に適した場所を知る事ができるのか?”と言うだろう その答えは “物をどのくらい所有しているのか?”だ

  • It's astonishing to me that we don't realize we make this all up. We made the whole thing up. You know why gold is the value it is?

    従ってニュートンの時代以降 人類の進化は所有するために地球から物資を採取する事だった

  • It's because somebody said so. That's it. You know why fuel costs what it does? Because somebody said so.

    その頃の所有は階級を映し出してた

  • Somebody speculates, somebody decides, there's a belief, enough people join in: this is what a thing costs.

    生活の階級がとても低いなら 何も持ってなく 生活の階級がとても高いなら

  • We've all decided this. So an awakening of we're repeating these cycles and we're getting kind of tired of it,

    金や財産や家や玩具 これら全てを持っている 従って“こうした事から誰が苦しむのか?”と思うだろう

  • maybe we should do something different this time aroundbe something different.

    あらゆるレベルで大きな苦しみがある 物質的な地球または人類文明であろうとなかろうと至る所に苦しみがある

  • We have to hear that. It's the society; the media especially that puts ordinary people into this vain search of material goodies.

    人間として自分の階級を証明するためには地球から物資を採取しなくてはならない 従って何をするか?

  • People didn't live this way even 50, 60 years ago. You know, this is just a very recent phenomenon,

    地球を採掘する この金の塊を手で掴み“俺の価値がどれぐらいか見ろ お前の金はどこだ?”と言えるよう地球の全財産を略奪する

  • that if you have instead of one cell phone, two cell phones in two pockets, then somehow you'll be better off.

    進化論はコミュニティではなく個人に基づいている ニュートン物理学は目に見える物だけが問題とされると主張した

  • Ha! Ha! Right! I'm the King of Excess. I'm the Sultan of Sales. I'm the Boss of Bargains.

    しかし 量子物理学に基づく世界は エネルギーに基づいていて エネルギーの本質において分かっている事のいくつかは 例えば愛や美しさといった感情や気持ちだ

  • My credit cards, they never fail. I got a seven hundred something on my credit score which means

    これらはエネルギーの表現であり量子物理学の世界では 確かに今日見る貨幣や物質的な表現よりも

  • I don't own a thing and I can buy even more. I'm a buffet-eating, tabloid-reading lovable guy.

    愛 感情 エネルギー 美しさ 調和の本質が強調される これが重要な理由は

  • I get the best of the best that my money can buy. It's a wonderful life!!

    もしそうなら世界を見て“金1ポンド欲しい? それとも人生ですごく恋をしたい?”と言えるから

  • It's a wonderful life with my red-headed wife. It's a wonderful life!

    Paul Bloom博士:認知および発達心理学

  • The average U.S. person now consumes twice as much as they did fifty years ago. Ask your grandma.

    これは『エマオの食事』として知られる絵画 1940年代にはヨハネス・フェルメールによって描かれたと考えられてた

  • In her day, stewardship and resourcefulness and thrift were valued. So, how did this happen?

    それは何百万ドルもの価値があり まさしくプライスレスだった それはオランダにあり 欧州で最も有名な絵画だった 人々はそれを見るために欧州を旅行する

  • Shortly after World War II, these guys were figuring out how to ramp up the economy. Retailing analyst Victor Lebow articulated the solution that has become the norm for the whole system. He said

    そしてある最悪な日 それは全くフェルメールによって描かれたものではなく 巧妙な贋作者ファン・メーヘレンによるものである事が発見された

  • Advertisements, and media in general, play a big role in this. Each of us in the U.S. is targeted with over 3,000 advertisements a day.

    言い換えると それはこの絵ではなく

  • We see more advertisements in one year than people fifty years ago saw in a lifetime.

    こっちの絵だった事が発見され 急にその価値がゼロになった

  • And if you think about it, what is the point of an ad except to make us unhappy with what we have.

    味覚は食べていると思っているものによって大いに影響を受ける これは色んな風に現れる

  • So 3,000 times a day, we're told that our hair is wrong, our skin is wrong, our clothes are wrong, our furniture is wrong,

    子供たちに関する面白い発見がある どうすれば子供たちに 人参や牛乳を食べてもらい そのうえ食べた後に

  • our cars are wrong, we are wrong, but that it can all be made right if we just go shopping.

    普通の人参や牛乳よりもおいしかったと言わせるのか?

  • Mr. Rogers, who was the TV guy here in the United States, said 'The space between the television and the viewer should be sacred.'

    実際 そうする事は非常に簡単で これは二年前に研究された