字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント I hate Twitter. I think about delayed in mine all the time. What I don't like is that constant posturing that goes on there. People just can't seem to help themselves from pointing out what is good and what is bad or how others are bad. And you are good to a point where it almost becomes fiction just to satisfy this need. And I don't mind that this happens. I understand that it does, but what annoys me most about it is that it gets rewarded through social media. We get likes. We get engagement by boasting about certain things. It's very popular. A classic example could be J. K. Rolling, changing the sexual identity retroactively on her characters as a way to posture for social version points. This to me is a good example because most understand that it's complete bullshit. But it's not always easy to tell what is genuine online contracting this using sports as an example. Previously, we have for thousands of years rewarded the winners the people who act, the ones who run the fastest swim, the fastest score, the most goals, etcetera, etcetera. We don't reward the ones who say they run the fastest. But thanks to social media, this is someone become backwards. You get rewarded for saying things that make you seem virtuous rather than acting on it. Obviously, this is not nearly to the same extent, but it explains why the side has become such a cesspool of opinion and how, more often than not, the people who boast about being virtuous often reveals to be hiding the fact that through action they are not. I feel like there's so many YouTubers I could call out. But what is virtue then? And what makes someone actually virtuous? Well, luckily, this is answered by ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. According to Aristotle, the path that leads to virtue is also the path that leads to happiness or a happy life. I find it kind of humorous, with never ending self help books that exists that still tries to answer this question today. When it was answered over 2000 years ago by the ancient Greek word you die ammonia. What does this mean? Keep watching. We'll explore. Please watch first. I just want to say I think it's so fucking cool. The more I study ancient Greek philosophy, the more I'm just amazed by it. First we had Socrates, one of the arguably greatest philosophers of all time, who taught using that word loosely, by the way, Plato, my favorite philosopher or an amazing writer, And Plato then created his famous school, the Academy, which I recital then enrolled in. And Aristotle has been described as the great, the one philosopher. I mean, what a lineage. But wait, it goes on. Aristotle also taught Alexander the fucking great. I didn't know this. How insane to this the guy that took over the fucking world anyhow, in the book Nickel McCain Ethics by Aristotle it wasn't actually written by Aristotle. It's notes taken down from his lectures by his son Nick, a Makai in some argued, this is the most important work of philosophy ever written. And in it we get the answer. What is virtue? According tire startle. Virtue is habit. What this means is that it can't be taught. You can't teach someone how to be a good person or how to act the right way. Instead, it's something that comes through practice. One good act doesn't make you a virtuous person. Instead, it's something that you have to keep practicing through action and through habit can achieve. After reading this, I find myself looking at my own upbringing and how habit as shaped who I am. I never realized just how much of my whole life and my help being is based on habit. My moral, my choices, all of this. If you stripped down this idea of right action through habit, you could compare it to machine learning or self taught A I, which actually works similar to how a human brain functions and learns just in a massively simplified way. For example, if a self taught A I wants to learn how to walk, they need a motivating factor. For that to happen. It could be moving from Point A to B in the shortest amount of time. And that's the function that they need to maximize when it learns it tries different behaviors many times over and over until it finds the most satisfying path, which achieves that function basically developing habits of behavior to achieve their goal. So then, looking at as humans, what is our motivating function? What is it that drives us every day to get out of bed? And the answer according to Aristotle is happiness. Happiness is the root function for all our actions. If you make an example out of this, you could say What? If you want $100,000 what would you do with that amount? If you say you want to buy something materialistic like a car, you can then ask again. Well, why do you want a car? You may answer, Oh, to get from point A to point B. Well, why do you want to go from Point A to Point B? You may answer to achieve a certain goal. And why do you want to achieve a certain goal? Well, achieving goals makes you happy. Similarly, if you said while I want to save my money because I hope in the future, that will make you happy, so then if happiness is our function, then why aren't we all happy? Why is it so difficult? Well, it's complicated and difficult to achieve, since virtue is achieved through action and habit helps us guide us through those actions. Aristotle points out that there's an excess and efficiency to each of our actions. He describes his with a couple different examples, which I think is kind of funny because his goal is to describe what makes someone virtuous. But when I read it, it just made me think of how many ways you can fail as a human. If you're too scared of something, then you're a coward. But if you're too fearless than you're overconfident, Aristotle put a lot of emphasis on communication. If you get offended by humor too much, then damn it, you boring if you make too many jokes than you are seen as unserious. If you were too sad, you're depressed. If you are not sad enough, you might seem cold or un bothered about certain things. He lists out many of these examples on how to fail as a human, but he points out that between each of these examples, their lives the golden mean no, not the golden mean, the golden mean It's here that the virtuous person acts each time and through habit. On Lee, Can you find this mean in each situation you find yourself in? But he also puts emphasis on the capacity of each person. Some of us can only act within a certain frame based on who we are, For example, say you see a fire in a building happen and you run in to save someone, which is seen as brave and virtuous. But if you're not strong enough to act on this, you could get trapped in the house along with the person and then causing more harm. You should therefore understand your capacity to act and then instead called the Fire Department as a way to help. And through that way you act virtuous within your own capacity. This leads us back to the word you'd ammonia, which technically translates to happiness. And it's a state of well being that you achieve by finding the golden mean through right action and through habit. But what the word really means isn't happiness. It's more human flourishing. For many of us, there exists a gap between what we perceive ourselves being capable off and what we have actually achieved. And this gap creates anxiety for us. For some, there might even be the opposite situation where you are able to achieve more, but you just don't recognize it yourself. If you die. Monje isn't there for being happy all the time. That would just be another extreme to the mean but Rather's acting virtuous because you enjoy being virtuous and it's realizing your potential and acting upon it. That is the key to happiness. That is the key to Hugh pneumonia. And that is my summary of nickel Mukai in ethics. By the way, Fuck Twitter.